Week 2 Lecture Note

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20 Jan 2011
Exams: each of the exams will include short note questions and essay questions
Malthusdawning: Are we too many?
Theories and idea on how population growth will benefit or not benefit the world
Ideas will follow us through most or all of lectures in future
Current World Population
More and more people are living on this planet
World population growth rate
However, the world population growth rate is declining
We will become less more over the years
World population growth rate = surplus of population in comparison to years in time
Population growth rate = pop t2 pop t0/ pop t1
World population throughout history
We will get less more on this planet
Is this a benefit or catastrophe?
Population densities 2010
Population density = total population / area
Canada has the least dense population among these countries
Although there are other countries that are really rich (i.e. Netherlands), they deal
with more people, so its one of the most highly dense country in the world
India is big country and quite a lot of people per square kilometres live
The media covers this topic on a daily basis food prices to rocket as population
We were concerned about population growth in 1970s and 80s, and we should still be
concerned nowadays
Malthus prophecy
There are other theories out there that state the world cant hold that many people
When Malthus made his prophecy, there were about 3 billion people worldwide and
he was concerned about this state especially when he looked at the food production
and the technologies out there to cater these populations
Malthus thought in late 18th century that these two statements he made were fixed
laws of nature:
1.People have to eat fixed law
2.We like to procreate and have sex and get children
Malthus prophecy (contd)
Geometrical ratio = population is increasing exponentially
Arithmetical ratio = population would increase in a linear way
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Growth of food will grow in a linear way
Population growth will increase exponentially
Where growth of food and population growth meets = carrying capacity (when
population growth will be higher than production of food, which will be final stage of
population growth and there will not be any growth further than that)
These people think there is no limit to growth, and resources will be there for people
on Earth
These people are called Cornucopians according to Greek term, which defines
plenty of food he/she needs
Population doctrines
These are at the moment the most powerful ones
Doctrine = qualified collection of thinking, not a theory as such because it doesnt
have to be scientific
Most well known book of genesis food needed to be multiplied
oPositive population doctrines applied about 1300 BC
Confucius population growth is good, but governments should balance on
population and resources
oHe might have experience some cases where there are overpopulation and the
resources (food) wasnt enough for those people, but he thought there may be
food in the future
Plato population quality is more important than quantity
oEmphasis should be on population stability
oSaw the density in cities in Greece and thought that it might be more
valuable to draw on the quality on the population (develop thinking in
education) and the quantity
Cicero Roman emperor said population growth is necessary to maintain Roman
oThese doctrines had an underlying belief system
St. Augustine abstinence is the preferred way to deal with human sexuality
oSecond best is to marry and to procreate
oHis doctrine was to stop making kids only if you have to marry then thats ok,
but the best is to not have children
St. Thomas Aquinas abstinence is not better than marriage and procreation
oCountered St. Augustine and said well if you want to marry and get children,
that is better than not getting children
Ibn Khaldun population growth is inherently good because it increases
employment specialization and raises income
Physiocrats wealth of nations is in land, not in people
oPopulation depends on wealth of land stimulated by free trade
oAgenda is on economic trade and not so much on population growth
Malthus population grows exponentially, that results in poverty when we dont
have more restraints
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