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Lecture 5

Week 5 Lecture Note

6 Pages
134 Views

Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRC02H3
Professor
Elrick

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Midterm exam next week (see midterm study guide on Blackboard)
Sample question #3:
oGo back to population measurements fertility rate, GDP, or life expectancy
oThen briefly discuss how fertility rates, for example, relate to population
growth
Essay due date is postponed one week later March 9 (see essay study guide
on Blackboard)
In-class assignment will also be one week later March 23
Session 4: Why do Scotsmen and Botswanians die young? Of mortality and
epidemics
Demographic transition
Mortality transition refers to longer life expectancy, lower infant mortality rates, and
lower population growth that occurs over time
In the more developed countries, this mortality transition took place in the 19th and
early 20th century and started in the less developed countries around WWII and
after
However, in developed countries, mortality transition was more quicker than
nowadays because of the availability of modern medicines, health care, and improved
nutrition and sanitation
Variations of mortality rates can occur over time, this is called the mortality
transition
How did this take place over time?
oFirst, when people were still hunters and gatherers, infant mortality rates
were quite high, especially for children under the age of 5
oBut if they made it over the age of 5, then they had a healthy life until they
were in their 20s and 30s
oSo we have to keep in mind that until hundreds of years later, life expectancy
of 30 or 40 years was quite a long ride
After advanced agricultural techniques in place, human settlement occurred,
however this brought human diseases due to denser population and poorer
sanitation in these settlements, and illness and diseases travelled through space
through trades
The industrial revolution was brought by the businessmen and economic elites,
however was put out because they feared the economic development of their
industries in their cities were in danger if they worked in factories and become ill
So public health initiatives in late 18th and early 19th century helped to improve the
social and economic living conditions
However, there were still infectious diseases these were leading causes of death in
early 19th century
www.notesolution.com
Pneumonia was and still is a cause of death, however much more in 18th century
than nowadays
Flu was a huge leading cause of death and still is nowadays
Measles was a leading cause of death in earlier times
However, some diseases didnt react to social improvements, for example diphtheria
those diseases were already located in immunization programs
Only for the last 60 years did we have comfortable health conditions that we all
experience nowadays
However, there is something that is called epidemiological transition and this now
brought different causes of death for the majority of people nowadays in the more
developed world
From these infectious and contagious diseases, we now suffer more from chronic and
generic disorders like cancer, diabetes, and other chronic diseases
However, still 40% of all death in less developed world are from children under the
age of 5
In the more developed world, only 2% of diseases are from people under 20
More elders die in developed world, and younger children die in less developed
countries
Crude birth rates 2008
We have seen that there are huge fertility rates in the less developed world especially
in central and south Africa
This corresponds to death rates in 2006 where we can find the highest death rates in
the less developed world especially in South Africa
Crude birth rates 2006
Crude birth rate (CDR) = (# of deaths / # of total population) x 1000
Life expectancies compared
The table shows the top ten countries with highest life expectancy and lowest ten
countries with lowest life expectancy
There still is a huge difference with small places like Macau with more than 84 years
of life
It is very difficult to capture these differences, that is why statisticians look at each
age group/year and then adjust for the breadth of this population range in a country,
and in the end, they end up with life expectancy for all of them
However, the age specific death rates (ASDR) are for one certain age group in a
certain population
How do they come up with ASDR? they refer to life tables , which are calculated by
actuaries in government and make probability of dying in these groups (e.g. 15 year
old smokers, female 20 year old outdoor skiers), and they come up with life table and
figure out how many of those countries are female 20 year old outdoor skiers, how
many are 15 year old smokers, and so on
So life expectancies are quite a complex term, which simplify how old a person will
become in the end
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Midterm exam next week (see midterm study guide on Blackboard) Sample question #3: o Go back to population measurements fertility rate, GDP, or life expectancy o Then briefly discuss how fertility rates, for example, relate to population growth Essay due date is postponed one week later March 9 (see essay study guide on Blackboard) In-class assignment will also be one week later March 23 Session 4: Why do Scotsmen and Botswanians die young? Of mortality and epidemics Demographic transition Mortality transition refers to longer life expectancy, lower infant mortality rates, and lower population growth that occurs over time th In the more developed countries, this mortality transition took place in the 19 and early 20 century and started in the less developed countries around WWII and after However, in developed countries, mortality transition was more quicker than nowadays because of the availability of modern medicines, health care, and improved nutrition and sanitation Variations of mortality rates can occur over time, this is called the mortality transition How did this take place over time? o First, when people were still hunters and gatherers, infant mortality rates were quite high, especially for children under the age of 5 o But if they made it over the age of 5, then they had a healthy life until they were in their 20s and 30s o So we have to keep in mind that until hundreds of years later, life expectancy of 30 or 40 years was quite a long ride After advanced agricultural techniques in place, human settlement occurred, however this brought human diseases due to denser population and poorer sanitation in these settlements, and illness and diseases travelled through space through trades The industrial revolution was brought by the businessmen and economic elites, however was put out because they feared the economic development of their industries in their cities were in danger if they worked in factories and become ill So public health initiatives in late 18 and early 19 century helped to improve the social and economic living conditions However, there were still infectious diseases these were leading causes of death in early 19 century www.notesolution.com
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