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Global Asia Studies Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Global Asia Studies

Global Asia Studies Lecture 2 o Cadbury commercial – what were the South Asian advertisement trying to portray? o Readings this week focus on how the embryo is created or rather formed  Eight branches of medicine and these eight branches explain the different ways of understanding disease 1. kÅya - 'inner' medicine, bodily medicine 2. bÅla - treatment of disease in children 3. graha - treatment of disease that arises from possession by evil spirits 4. urdhvanga - diseases of head and neck 5. salya - treatment that removes harmful elements by surgery 6. damstrÅ - treatment of disease due to poison 7. jarÅ - treatment of diseases of old age 8. vrsa - treatment of diseases of virility and sterility  Seven tissues -- these seven tissues misses one major component; the idea of the woman’s egg, instead the egg is categorized as blood a. Chyle b. Blood c. Flesh d. Fat e. Bone f. Marrow g. Male seed th th o Reading 2.1 – The Heart of Medicine of Vagbhatta (6 -7 century) speaks of one of the three principle texts of the science of long life, it is a classical south Asian medical tradition  Argues that there are three forces within the body: wind, bile, and phlegm  Provide support for balance with each other, harming body when it is out of balance  These such harms that can bring in Ayurveda are termed dosas or faults  Early Indian embryology was quite aware that the fetus develops over time.  There is this notion that when we are in the woman’s womb we a perfectly balanced, but as we are given birth to we become unbalanced individuals  It is quoted that the male child is to be prayed for – this depicts a gender bias in preference of child birth or embryology  There is also the idea of ojos which is the notion that if the child is born at the wrong time it will end up dying  The text was generally free from any religious matter o Reading 2.2 – Medicine Buddha (17 century) in which conception is considered to be due to primary and secondary causes  Primary causes – simultaneous conjunction in the mother’s womb of a consciousness inclined to birth, the father’s semen and the mother’s uterine blood.  Secondary causes are the five elements (earth, water, fire, air and space), without which development could not occur  In the text the diagrams are illustrated to Blue Beryl Treatise  The same eight branches of medicine are seen here  In plate 5 you can see that it represents embryology, the medicine Buddha is placed on every plate, there is an entry of consciousness during the making of a child  There will be a male child on odd days, and female child born on even days  There is a limbless period of life forming; which is also referred to as the period of fish  There is also a limb period in which all functioning organs have an initial beginning; which can also be referred to as the period of the turtle  There is also a period in which the fetus consumes unclean residues; which is referred to as the period of the pig  Male fetuses reside on the left side of the woman’s womb, while females on the rights side o When compared with modern technology we see similarities and differences  In most depictions of the child in the womb, you see a figure resembling that of Buddha sitting upright
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