Week 5 .docx

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Global Asia Studies
Sudharshan Duraiyappah

Week 5- Gandharan Art Feb 7 2013 Diplomacy - Straddling a wide range of ethnic and cultural boundaries - Two distinct type of coins issued in the western and eastern parts of the empire - Shows significant ruler, Kanishka. Human figure of Buddha created under his reign Western part of the empire - Summer capital at Begram in the hills of Afghanistan - Coins featuring Iranian deities, Greek goddess and the Buddha - Coins used local Kharosti script derived from Aramaic and also occasionally used Greek - Buddhist Empire Eastern Part - Winter Capital Mathura located in the plains of Northern India - Coins featured Hindu Gods and Buddha - Used local indian Brahmi script - The Kushan rulers could indeed King Kanishka - Creation of Human form for the image of the Buddha in his reign - 78- 108 AD Buddha in Human Form - Anthropomorphic image of the Buddha became popular - The earlier preference for the symbolic representation was abandoned in favor of embodiment Reason for the Change - Religion itself was changing and no longer visualized the Buddha as an inspired mortal sho had found a path to salvation - Now been deified, and the followers required a personal focus to pin their devotion - Two distinct types of images were produced in the western and eastern parts of the Kushan empire - Doctrines are changing - Everybody else has human figure for their deities, peer pressure Gold of Kanishka - Made in Kanishka’s reign, gold, shows one of the earliest artifact that shows Buddha’s human form - In lotus position, covered by robs, geese below, disciples also have mandora around them Stupa of Kanishka - Recordings of Chinese pilgrims indicated that the stupa rose over 90m, numerous stories were built of wood, had a gilded copper mast and a set of 13 copper umbrellas - Silk routes, North Western Image - Fashioned with local grey schist stone, local stone, artists used local material - Using Greco- Roman Apollo type as the model with Persian influence, it was Persian Empire before it became Roman cities - Buddha shown with youthful features, wavy hair with the robe in classical folds - 32 signs of the Buddha’s superhuman perfection (Purusha Lakshana, male features) - Not all external - When Buddha was born, he had a marking between his eyebrows, a bump on his head, interesting hand marks, lotus under his feet, etc. Sculpture from ROM - Made of grey schist stone, - Buddha was born into the royalty, - He was shown as a monk, not a young prince - Shown his
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