HISA04 notes.docx

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Introduction to the Early Modern World:
15th century voyage-grand Armada
9 mast ships,dozens of ships carrying supplies/water,patrol boats;cavalry boats etc.
sailed numerous times at beginning of 15th century,1st exploration by Armada of this time
carried trade
brought back commodites
Zheng He's grand armadas (1405-1433)
-400 feet long boats and 150 feet wide (big boats)
-27,000 crew members
-voyages represented china's prosperity and power
-the ming dynasty revived china after mongol rule and drastic population losses from plague
-Compared to other civilizations,china was advanced in terms of
(1) technology
(2) the economy
(3) strong,organized, and effective government
-despite the power and ability, the chinese did not drive early modern globalization
-Europeans took a leading role in initiating many of the connections during early globalization
-European empires played a significant role (connections they made with other countries and
-Europeans initiated most of the connections and contact
-Chinese stopped the exploration (many reasons):
1. they saw it was improper to go abroad when ones parents were alive (gone for a long time)
2. They saw little to gain from "barbarian" nations
-most large historical transformations are contingent. not necessary , determined or pre-determined
-Outcomes are usually contingent upon many factors
-Things could have been different
-keep in mind how different early modern worldview are
-most communities are lead by hierarchy rule
-most world views did not reach beyond the local
-they way they identified themselves is different then how we do it today
-related to religious groups, families and corporations
-corporate bodies were more basic it defined a group (they could be
cities,towns,religious,class,different notions of castes,profession)
-being a port of these corporate bodies determines social life, free time and had stages of life
established by a guild.
-stages of guild (masters of job, when you die your guild organizes your funeral)
The assumption of inequality: Natural Inequality and Social Inequality
-assumption that people are not equal in their capacities nor are they recognized in law
-what cities you live in determines your rights (each city has different rights and laws)
-a lot of variation and is determined by corporate bodies
-when they moved between places and cities and made connections to travel far distances they
have experiences of vastly different cultures.
-there is a set determined order to nature - fix natured to it (natural order)
-natrual part of existence (natural order)
THE GREAT CHAIN OF BEING (scale of nature)
-always pointed to for justification; concept existing in western civilization
-man is always on the top, woman are always on the bottom
-natural justifies social inequality
-duty: how people understood their life choice instead of thinking about rights, they think about
duties differently
INFORMATION :BEFORE "NEWS": information spreads slowly and unreliably
-news was word of mouth, no newspapers or fast communications lines
-limitations on peoples access to information on the larger world
-people doing these expeditions knows very little of what they are getting into
Making history (Lecture 2)
when they saw pumas they thought they were lions
the unfamiliar in terms of the familiar (the unknown in terms of the known)
this is both understandable and becomes problematic because of fundamental misunderstandings
more of a barrier to knowledge
Columbus and the Taino
(the picture) pieces of evidence: Europeans are civil and Natives are savage, status difference,
used religion as a way to understand that people they were encountering ,European shows
superior force, ocean is a larger section of the actual frame,