Africa served as a refueling coast, midway from europe to americas. Importance on international trade routes (pg 65 phabe) Africa source of trading goods, forts/trading posts set up at coast of west africa. Mostly spanish and portugeuse traders would buy african goods and take back to own land. Slave trade most important economic factor of this phase. Goods entering africa from the european side in exchange for slaves. Dutch settlers from holland, migrated to newly discovered section of africa because of religious differences with dutch establishment of that time. European farmers (dutch) settled in these areas with european methods of agriculture, customs and strong religious faith and increasingly potential to violently clash with. Siuations in s. africa changes after the 1860s. Rich resources of africa are the mineral resources of southern africa, bringing the. Africans into different clashes with the europeans (british, dutch, germans ) Phase 2: 19th & 20th century european empires in africa.