Lecture 2

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3 Nov 2010
- economies are self sustaining, as effects are internal
industrial power (resource)
Æ UK - coal (2/3 of the world's output)
- pig iron (½)
- steel
- cotton (½ cloth)
Phases/Reasons of Imperialism
- initially started at the turn of the 16th, 1492
1. 1492 Americas [initially Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch - had the best navies
(technologically advanced in ship making)]
2. 1498 India [discovered the 'rest of the world'/East and West]
3. 1750 - 1815 British navy - industrial revolution sparked the British economy
- destroyed the fleets of Spanish and Dutch
4. 1830 - 1880 - wealth took off
- industrialization/markets, search for raw materials
- conquer and conquest to extend its reach
Æ liberalism/free trade - democratic and open to competition [competition was exclusive]
Æ nationalism
Æ emergence of scientific racism
- geography mattered [North/South]
Æ steam engine [industrial - transportation, carrying capacity, more capable]
- quinine prophylaxis [medical - cure for malaria]
- 'machine' gun [military - ability to kill more at a shorter time]
5. 1880 - 1900 [scramble for Africa]
- the 'cape', peninsula
Imperialism: How (What is Power?)
- by 1900, Britain controlled ¼ of the world's land = 1/3 of world population
-- direct control (physical territorial occupation)
-- indirect control (commercial control of the economy)
- cooperation NOT cohersion
[via - local elite subcontracted
- administration/bureaucracy [making a 'new way']
- technology/modernity [make them independent yet integrated]
- divide & rule [identify different groups and favour, emphasize differences]
- cultural dominance
[language of power - English = my language & culture & expression]
[Western governance = my law & administration & methods & limits]
[Christianity = my belief system & values & concepts]
.'. power is given
- not doing anything is doing something
Plantation Economy & Unity Agenda
- J.W.B. Money (1861) Æ Dutch East Indies
"Java, or How to Manage a Colony"
-- natives want money NOT rights
.'. exported crops
- Drain Theory (1886) [Dadabhai Naoroji]
-- best land is NOT used for food cultivation, taken away
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