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Lecture 3

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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Scramble for Africa
1. 1880 - 1914 (European Competition)
- around the periphery = held
- 1914, divided neatly into sections
British have smaller pieces
French combined holdings into large traps
2. Industrial Revolution Æ economic expansion Æ imperialism Æ quest for raw materials
3. periphery Æ interior (and consolidation of that land)
- continent becomes a grounds for competition between European powers
4. bringing order to chaos [chaos = lack of borders]
Æ geometric borders became the norm
Æ ethno-cultural groups divided (190) - split unevenly
Æ bound diversity (with no prior history) - problems arise
Æ lack of geographic unity (zones of climate) - uneven distribution
Æ 10 000 African units Æ 40 European state holdings
5. Indirect rule:
Æ self supporting colony [for maximum profit - inexpensive means] [no overhead,
maximum exploitation]
- Empires are costly and few succeed due to cost-effectiveness
- elites were exploited to utilize the system of governance
Æ industry/economy - put into the hands of a company [monopoly commercial company]
Æ government [order, tax, logistics, elites - protecting vital interests]
Æ cultural imprint of cultural colonization is minimal because of ways of ruling
- regression in standard of living, education, economy
- stagnation Æ lack of development Æ compounded problems that already existed
1. North (½ population) - simply a 'geographic expression', not treated as similar
Æ Muslim (religion)
Æ Hausa (lingual)
Æ Fulani (feudal economic class) - surf, lacking education, not very productive -- backward
2. West (Lagos)
Æ Native/Christain
Æ Yoruba
Æ tribal/zonal kingdoms
- different zones = different needs
3. East (poorest) - most migrant in search of opportunities (issue), most/best educated
Æ Native/Christain
Æ Igbo
Æ autonomous village units
Belgian Congo (Zaire, Democratic Republic of Congo)
- more abusive in the ways of ruling & consequences
1. Leopold II hired Henry Stanley (1878-1883) to negotiate with the DMC
- set up as an enterprise of the Belgian
2. 400 chiefs signed treaties seeding their rights of land to the Belgian king (network)
3. European Recognition 1885 realized competition in the Europe were increasing [1
million square miles]
4. first export: IVORY
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