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3 Nov 2010
Æ Russia removed from European stability equation - destroyed Metternich's concept
- dictate own policy without diplomatic solution to others
- war = destabilizing
Æ European nations began to pursue own self interest over collectively
Æ exercise of conflict option rather than diplomacy
- instead of trying to stop war, war was effectively made on element of diplomacy
- used war to solve problems
Crimean War - French, British, Austrian, Ottomans versus Russia
- emergence/formation of nations by force (Italy and Germany)
1859 1864
1866 versus Austria 1866
1870 versus France 1870
Austria/France exercised power within the peninsula (Italy) & Germany
in the interest of Austria & France to prevent nation within the region -- exercise control
- would not have occurred without the consent or negligence of Britain to stop
- Chancellor of Germany: "War is politics by other means"
- war = simply diplomacy, a certain option
Germany - rose as concretely - defacto of great power -- militarily humble and destroyed
Austria and France (& reputation
Bismarckian system
- socially conservative, supported monarchy, need disunited Germany (destroy old order) &
create new one that is similar in terms
- nationalism will create a country -- confederation will hurt, however, if not - all end up the
aims: 1. make Prussia strong in 'Germany'
- largest state of the region
- most militarily powerful
- economically strongest
- nation was connected to emotion - romanticism to urge a formation of a nation
representing selves
- Bismarck wanted to lead the process of unification to control how it happened
2. make Germany strong and maintain it in Europe - make sure it survives (create a
nation by force, it will be destroyed by force)
- not united Germany but Prussia governing over others
- upset the balance of power - emerged as military power, isolated France, 2nd
Industrial Revolution
- destroyed after World War,
3. Preserve and strengthen the monarchical-conservative order
- make sure Prussia is in the driver seat of any sort of unification
- when Germany is created, make sure Germany is strong in Europe
- make sure social imprint of the state is conservative
-- diplomatic revolution
- not against Metternich's aims but just has a different way in performing them
step 1: destroy 'old' Balance of Power (1814) - policy of war
- 1864 versus Denmark (consolidate)
- 1866 versus Austria (who is going to be Regional power)
- 1870 versus France (inaugurate Great Power)
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