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Lecture 8

Lecture 8


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Lecture
8

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L08
Bismarck
"Politics not an exact and logical science, but it is the capacity to choose in each fleeting
moment of the situation that which is least harmful or most opportune."
- not a set plan diplomacy, statesman responding to the 'best course'
- after left, German diplomacy takes a turn - plan and a perogative
"We do not live alone in Europe but with three other nations that hate and envy us."
"All politics reduces itself to this formula; try to be one of three, as long as the world is
governed by the unstable equilibrium of five great powers."
- always be in the majority (one of three)
"The secret of diplomacy is to make a good treaty with Russia."
"Think of Austria off the map and we are isolated in between France and Russia."
- geopolitics, two front confrontation will be disastrous
- Austria is a necessary power/ally
"My map of Africa lies in Europe. Here is Russia and here lies France, and we are in the
middle. That is my map of Africa."
- African concerns were NOT concerns of Germany
- divert attention [thought Russia and France would never be on the same side]
- mistake of peace terms: [wars - 1864 1866]
- no one expected Austria to be beaten (militarily strong/leaders)
- Austria was valuable ally of Germany (won but repaired) - did not repair France
- defeat and humiliation for Austria
1870 with French
- Alsace-Lorraine seized [did not ask for Austrian territory, left Austria intact] -- one was
ethnically German, lack of reason to take territory
- indemnity: 5 billion Francs (war debt) - made purposely high, consequences if not paid off
- Victory March through Paris under the Arch - rubbed salt in wounds [none in Austria]
- marched through France - Arch de Triumph
- Occupation until 1873 - stay until paid off indemnity (ceremonial guard)
Æ did not forget any of the terms
- created unified Germany - called Second Empire of Germany
- Bismarck - Second Reich announced at Versailles
-- announced inauguration in most grandest French palaces in French history [Louis XIV]
- all treaties have to satisfy all (or at least most) of 6 criteria
1873: 3 Emperors League (Germany, Austria, Russia)
- alliance between three monarchies of Europe
- recreate Metternich's Holy Alliance
- pledging to Austria and Russia equally - two don't get along, fighting proxy wars in Balkans
- southern tip includes Orthodox/Slavic peoples - affects composition of Austria
- vying for Ottoman Empire - crumbling as it happens
1878: Treaty of San Stefano (Russia versus Ottomans)
- Greece and Bulgaria rebel against Turkish rule
- Russia tells Ottoman to cease hostility or will intervene - Russia intervenes, destroys
Ottoman Turks
- if treaty of Russia and Ottomans remained, Balkan problems would have ceased
- Balkan individualism - want own separate state = free from Austrians or Ottomans
- Austria left out of treaty, felt that balance of power had been disrupted
- Germany put pressure on Russia to include Austria [if not - stop funds, break the league]
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