"Politics not an exact and logical science, but it is the capacity to choose in each fleeting
moment of the situation that which is least harmful or most opportune."
- not a set plan diplomacy, statesman responding to the 'best course'
- after left, German diplomacy takes a turn - plan and a perogative
"We do not live alone in Europe but with three other nations that hate and envy us."
"All politics reduces itself to this formula; try to be one of three, as long as the world is
governed by the unstable equilibrium of five great powers."
- always be in the majority (one of three)
"The secret of diplomacy is to make a good treaty with Russia."
"Think of Austria off the map and we are isolated in between France and Russia."
- geopolitics, two front confrontation will be disastrous
- Austria is a necessary power/ally
"My map of Africa lies in Europe. Here is Russia and here lies France, and we are in the
middle. That is my map of Africa."
- African concerns were NOT concerns of Germany
- divert attention [thought Russia and France would never be on the same side]
- mistake of peace terms: [wars - 1864 1866]
- no one expected Austria to be beaten (militarily strong/leaders)
- Austria was valuable ally of Germany (won but repaired) - did not repair France
- defeat and humiliation for Austria
1870 with French
- Alsace-Lorraine seized [did not ask for Austrian territory, left Austria intact] -- one was
ethnically German, lack of reason to take territory
- indemnity: 5 billion Francs (war debt) - made purposely high, consequences if not paid off
- Victory March through Paris under the Arch - rubbed salt in wounds [none in Austria]
- marched through France - Arch de Triumph
- Occupation until 1873 - stay until paid off indemnity (ceremonial guard)
Æ did not forget any of the terms
- created unified Germany - called Second Empire of Germany
- Bismarck - Second Reich announced at Versailles
-- announced inauguration in most grandest French palaces in French history [Louis XIV]
- all treaties have to satisfy all (or at least most) of 6 criteria
1873: 3 Emperors League (Germany, Austria, Russia)
- alliance between three monarchies of Europe
- recreate Metternich's Holy Alliance
- pledging to Austria and Russia equally - two don't get along, fighting proxy wars in Balkans
- southern tip includes Orthodox/Slavic peoples - affects composition of Austria
- vying for Ottoman Empire - crumbling as it happens
1878: Treaty of San Stefano (Russia versus Ottomans)
- Greece and Bulgaria rebel against Turkish rule
- Russia tells Ottoman to cease hostility or will intervene - Russia intervenes, destroys
- if treaty of Russia and Ottomans remained, Balkan problems would have ceased
- Balkan individualism - want own separate state = free from Austrians or Ottomans
- Austria left out of treaty, felt that balance of power had been disrupted
- Germany put pressure on Russia to include Austria [if not - stop funds, break the league]