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Lecture 11

Lecture 11


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Lecture
11

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L11
America
- divisional size was too large (16 000 - 17 000)
- continental Civil War - last war, had large sizes
- Pershing (Commander in Chief) demands cavalry (no use, except adding to the slaughter)
- lack of structure/administration
- mixed equipment lent from British/French
- independent command without coordinated structure (no Allied coordinate/consultation)
- British send ships to America to transport
May - July (300 000/month)
Æ opt outs in war (1918)
- October 31: Ottoman Empire
- November 4: Austria-Hungary
- November 4: revolution in Germany
- November 6: German Social Democratic government called for armistice terms
- November 11: armistice (cease hostilities temporarily)
- Versailles 1919 -- Peace of Paris Settlement
The Versailles Settlement (1919)
French demands: revenge for 1870
- restoration of Alsace-Lorraine
- detach Ruhr/Saar (for coal - profitable, deny German ability to use coal to make steel for
war production)
Æ occupied Saar for 15 years
Æ French workers could go into Ruhr to extract 40-45 tons of coal/year until
Germany repays reparation fees
- security pact - continuation of pre-war alliance Æ did not get it
- reparations Æ had to pay but did not pay them off
- Rhineland demilitarized Æ Germany not allowed to put troops up to the border
- could see Germans coming if they were to attack
British demands:
- strong European market Æ Germany had been strongest British trade partner
- no desire for French hegemony in control of Europe
- feared Soviet influence in Eastern/Central/Western Europe
- wanted strong 'centre' to block Bolshevism
- focus on colonies NOT Europe
American demands:
- Wilson defeated Senate (=/= 2/3) in November 1918
- 1920 Wilson lost, Harding wins presidency
- Americans would stay out of European affairs and would concentrate domestically
- suggesting League of Nations but not in it
- Harding concluded separate peace treaty with Germany
Russia demands:
- USSR (Soviet Union) Civil War 1917-1922
- in reaction, Allied intervention in Russia to stomp out revolution (1919-1921)
- no coordinated strategy
- revolution was popular, well organized, key parts controlled
German Territory (Europe)
- 13.5% of pre-existing 1914 borders detached -- 7% of territory was Alsace-Lorraine
www.notesolution.com
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