43 views2 pages
3 Nov 2010
School
Department
Course
L11
America
- divisional size was too large (16 000 - 17 000)
- continental Civil War - last war, had large sizes
- Pershing (Commander in Chief) demands cavalry (no use, except adding to the slaughter)
- lack of structure/administration
- mixed equipment lent from British/French
- independent command without coordinated structure (no Allied coordinate/consultation)
- British send ships to America to transport
May - July (300 000/month)
Æ opt outs in war (1918)
- October 31: Ottoman Empire
- November 4: Austria-Hungary
- November 4: revolution in Germany
- November 6: German Social Democratic government called for armistice terms
- November 11: armistice (cease hostilities temporarily)
- Versailles 1919 -- Peace of Paris Settlement
The Versailles Settlement (1919)
French demands: revenge for 1870
- restoration of Alsace-Lorraine
- detach Ruhr/Saar (for coal - profitable, deny German ability to use coal to make steel for
war production)
Æ occupied Saar for 15 years
Æ French workers could go into Ruhr to extract 40-45 tons of coal/year until
Germany repays reparation fees
- security pact - continuation of pre-war alliance Æ did not get it
- reparations Æ had to pay but did not pay them off
- Rhineland demilitarized Æ Germany not allowed to put troops up to the border
- could see Germans coming if they were to attack
British demands:
- strong European market Æ Germany had been strongest British trade partner
- no desire for French hegemony in control of Europe
- feared Soviet influence in Eastern/Central/Western Europe
- wanted strong 'centre' to block Bolshevism
- focus on colonies NOT Europe
American demands:
- Wilson defeated Senate (=/= 2/3) in November 1918
- 1920 Wilson lost, Harding wins presidency
- Americans would stay out of European affairs and would concentrate domestically
- suggesting League of Nations but not in it
- Harding concluded separate peace treaty with Germany
Russia demands:
- USSR (Soviet Union) Civil War 1917-1922
- in reaction, Allied intervention in Russia to stomp out revolution (1919-1921)
- no coordinated strategy
- revolution was popular, well organized, key parts controlled
German Territory (Europe)
- 13.5% of pre-existing 1914 borders detached -- 7% of territory was Alsace-Lorraine
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Document Summary

french workers could go into ruhr to extract 40-45 tons of coal/year until. Divisional size was too large (16 000 - 17 000) Continental civil war - last war, had large sizes. Pershing (commander in chief) demands cavalry (no use, except adding to the slaughter) Independent command without coordinated structure (no allied coordinate/consultation) British send ships to america to transport. November 6: german social democratic government called for armistice terms. Versailles 1919 -- peace of paris settlement. Detach ruhr/saar (for coal - profitable, deny german ability to use coal to make steel for war production) Security pact - continuation of pre-war alliance did not get it. Reparations had to pay but did not pay them off. Rhineland demilitarized germany not allowed to put troops up to the border. Strong european market germany had been strongest british trade partner. No desire for french hegemony in control of europe. Wilson defeated senate (=/= 2/3) in november 1918.

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