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Lecture 12

lecture 12

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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- collapse of Austria-Hungary Æ Yugoslavia, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and the
resurrection of Poland
Versailles: Ottoman Empire - how Versailles/diplomacy affected the Middle-East
- simply drew lines to where they wanted to draw lines
- EVEN WITH Wilson in Fourteen Points - referenced to national self-determination,
imposed self-determination (not own)
- affected more people for a longer period of time in Ottoman Empire
Ambitions (of neighbours of Ottoman Empire)
Austria-Hungary: wanted parts of Balkan region
- conglomerate of nations - important for Austria to take the rest of the Slavic in the south to
incorporate them to make homogeneous race
- Austria and Russia always had competitions in the area
- 1908 Bulgaria declared "independent"
- made independent of Ottoman control and put under influence of Austria-Hungary
- in the area with puppet king to allow Austria-Hungary to do what they want
- 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia & Herzegovina
Æ basically moving components of an Empire to the sway of another
First Balkan War 1912-1913: civil dispute of Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro
- bonded together to get more autonomy if in Ottoman rule/ free themselves / and Bulgaria
to enlarge its property
- common enemy of Ottomans but conflict broke out between S&B, G&B, S&G about
Second Balkan War 1913: Russia (Serbia & Greece) versus Austria-Hungary (Bulgaria)
- war broke out amongst selves between S&G vs. B while trying to attain
- alliances got called in regarding conflict
- Albania Independence 1913 - Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim states (4 regions by faith)
- Albanians did not constitute a nation
1. "decay" of the multinational empire (Ottoman territory)
2. competing interests of various nationalities and their inabilities to come to terms
to how opposed Ottoman situation would look like
- sanctioned by international body as "independent" - but influenced by Greeks and
Italians to disregard independence
- Macedonia and part of Thrace - European part of Turkey (Thrace - divided between
- demise of 500 000 to 1 million sq miles - Ottoman territory before the conflict even begins:
1. intrigues
2. civil problems
3. corruption within government
- had been an "orderly" collapse due to inflicting conflicts
- 1911 claimed for Libya
- 1915 swayed towards allies Æ promised influence in the collapse of Balkans post-war
(most likely Albania)
- thought if on the winning side, they would get spoils of war on peace table
- British supported Greek claim of Albania
- more supported by Britain
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