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Lecture 18

Lecture 18


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Lecture
18

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L18
Why Fascism?
1. is a logical consequences in German history, 'uniquely German'
- Mussolini was Hitler's hero until Hitler rose to his own power
- revolves around looking at German unification [war is 'part of Germany']
- have a psychological problem if you do not believe that - cannot contain German Fascism
as if it was a disease
2. trend of 20th century, result of: WWI, Russian Revolution, depression
- collapse of 19th century European power
- WWI is a catalyst resulting in extremism with economic disintegration
- always a psychological perogative in why/what causes humanity to be so degrading
3. continuation of breakdown/collapse of the 19th century: monarchy, conservativism,
liberalism
4. revolution of the bourgeoisie VS. businessmen, unions/labourers, government
- failed in the past so turned to a new ideology
- Fascism was against big capitalism, interested in state control
-- man is inherently corrupt, and power is the only thing that restrains him - at heart, we are
all Fascists as we have false morality
-- force containing natural impulses/actions
What is Fascism: common elements
1. amalgamation of ideas
- doctrine is not singular undefined
- takes ideologies that they want to use
Æ conservative (order/authority is driven for)
- Hitler hated Bismarck (vile) as Bismarck did not take Germany to its natural progression
- conservatism rests on the fact that order/authority are the base for what people respect
Æ monarchy (so society is controlled by a leader/elite group)
Æ socialism (utopian idea of party & government to transform the nation to a different
level, mass strength movement)
2. opposition to liberalism, socialism, and democracy
- liberalism - not enough control over government
- socialism - professes everything to the opposite of what fascism wants (upliftment of the
people, harmony)
- democracy - fascism is for hierarchial system with bloodline and race
3. emotion, destiny, spectacle [about heart]
- rise of mass propaganda/parades
4. uniquely glorifies violence
- "violence is the best way for change/business/ultimate expression of power"
Æ battles tests people's worth [Social Darwinism]
- clash of civilizations - history is always a survival of the fittest
Æ cleansing within the state of the unworthy
Æ justification for domination [might is right]
5. anti-Versailles
- opposed to the new European border applying to Germany
6. acknowledges a pyramid structure of society
- either part of the leader, member of the party, or the people
-- functions as a collective, not individually
-- no distinction between public and private sphere
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