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Lecture 19

Lecture 19

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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Weimar Republic - interwar German government
- what led to the collapse of the government as a result of post-Versailles events
- in/after WWI, government was organized to collapse
November 10, 1918 - Social Democrat (SD) - centre-Left
- day before armistice
- monarch head of state was not in control of German government
- German high command had been in charge
- military affairs was so large that it encompassed within hands of army
- government control in hands of monarchy/executive were almost collapsing
- when high command realized that they could not win WWI, allowed monarchy to collapse
- popular, Germans could not have won WWI, army organized armistice (found scapegoat)
Æ government wanted a scapegoat to take them out of the war
- wanted to rid the monarchy
- wanted to continue to be in charge of the government/retain control but did not
want to be blamed
- Versailles signed by SD
March 13, 1920 - Kapp Putsch (still under army control)
- why not openly command the government ?
- Allies may come in and restore government/monarch if upheaval
- Putsch launched a coup against his own leadership (defeated but resulted to ask the
government for more armed control)
November 6 - 8, 1923 - emergence of the Fascist party
- organizes Munich Putsch (emergency powers) - street 'coup'
- attempt to take over the streets of Munich - brawl easily put down by high command
- by this time, Nazi party under Hitler becomes a side in the lobby
- emergency powers - increased powers: right to suspend, search without warrant, etc
- continuously giving power to the military as the military protects the government from
1928-1931 - Hitler begins to rile support
- army blamed for signing Versailles, inflation, poor conditions
- Army strikes a deal with Nazi - Rapprochement [move its support from the government to
the political contender, Hitler]
- creates an understanding for Nazi party to not attempt to disrupt law and order of the
streets so long as the army does not crack down
- army allows Fascism to grow, supporting - not supporting government
- allowing Nazi party to crack away at the government
- made fatal mistake by allowing Fascists in joining the army - into military forces and soon
into political establishments
1931-1932 - Schliecher becomes Chancellor - in total control of the state
- President Hindenburg refuses to declare Hitler to take control as Chancellor
- Hindenburg = hero, took control over German kaiser - prefer another military commander
- results in army-Nazi breakdown -- relationship falls
- Nazis actively work against the government (high command) with strategies such as
- biggest asset is hooliganism on the street - army can be called out but Schliecher does not
as he does not want to call for emergency powers
January 1933 - Hindenburg refuses to allow the use of emergency powers
- Schliecher wanted to crush Hitler
- felt that it would be better to give control to civil commander than army
- Schliecher's government falls as he has no support from Hindenburg
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