Lecture 21

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3 Nov 2010
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L21
1937
- Anglo-German Gentleman's Agreement
- Anti-Comintern Pact (Germany, Italy, )
- Hitler is extremely shrewd, cunning, successful in getting what he wants through
consensus/diplomacy
1938
- diplomatic coup - Anschluss (Austria) without firing a shot
- small Nazi party in Austria internally to destablize government
- launched a coup
- had them openly declare that they wanted Anschluss with Germany
Æ should not have happened according to Versailles (but was against self determination of
peoples)
- included in the Third Reich of Germany
- Munich (Sudentenland in Czechoslovakia) - Northwest area = ethnically German minority
but was never included in Germany
- Yugoslavia & Czechoslovakia
- if I could include a group of Germans into Germany, why not ALL
- French, Italians, and British got together to decide on fate of Czechs
[this territory would be detached and incorporated into Germany
- worked to separate the Czech ]
- French-Germany non-aggression pact
- "secured" peace (passiveness to war)
1939
- Czech territory annexed by Germany Æ erased credibility with Britain
- Italy invades Albania
- question of when the Allies decide when the war is on
- Germans seized port Memel (Lithuania) -- wanted coastline up to Soviet Union to secure
coastline to be free from sanctions/blockade
- in creation of the Baltic states, Memel was a League of Nations mandate
- Pact of Steel (Germany, Italy) emphasizing relations between fascist parties (foreign
policies) to recreate a balance of power was on
- Nazi Soviet Pact (pulled apart the last chance the Entente had to recombine to stop them)
- Stalin concluded non-aggression pact with Hitler
- British guaranteed Poland openly
- Hitler said to military commanders that they were bluffing
- allowed entire countries (e.g. Czech, Austria) to be assimilated into Germany
without retaliation, Poland is nothing & will not do anything
- Poland invaded
- Hitler admittedly was dumbfounded - stupid move in going to war for Poland
- Britain's last straw
- depends on how you define war
Rappallo Era (1922-1933) - Soviet Foreign Policy
- Germany and Russia reorganized to Bismarckian era (basis for stability and peace was
strong treaty with Russia)
- foreign ministers - Chicherin + Rathenall - met and set stone basis for a crucial treaty
- diplomatic recognition - could console each other, extending into normalizations of trade
- from 1922, Germans begin industrializing/forming military links on Soviet soil
- Soviets get sharing of tactics, knowledge, etc [Blitzkreig = Soviet]
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