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Lecture 23

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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- Eastern/Western theatres connected with tactics
- diplomacy connected to strategy
- Blitzkrieg = logistical solution to primary German problem (lack of resources/ability to
fight a long war of attrition)
- stalemate between German airforce and British airforce -- affected German tactics and
began bombing North Africa (did not want to, centre of attention was on Europe)
Æ turning of the tide as soldiers turned to Soviet Union
- prioritizing of Europe led to an Europe-first strategy
- Americans depended on the battle of the Atlantic & North America as it was a logistical
campaign that had to be won
- hostilities surfaced after North Africa Æ Italy (transition from Tunasia to Sicily)
Æ cease hostilities for transition of soldiers to allow D-Day
Pacific Theatre: Japan
Æ Meiji Restoration (1868): Japan becomes modernized/industrialized, undertakes reform
for Sudo-constition and consequences of modernization (central government with policy of
- new Japan
Æ Russo-Japanese War (1905): Japanese won with near annihilation of Russian navy -
produced a first rate naval capacity tumbling European power and grudgingly admitted by
British and Americans as a force to be able to contend with rest
Æ influence over Manchuria (1910): fragility/vulnerability of China + encroachment of
- recognized by British as legitimate area of Japanese rule
Æ 21 Demands on China (1915) - was on right side of WWI, allowed to expand its influence
in China, asking for more influence in port cities (Shanghai) and bailed threats of violence to
Æ German colonies gained in China (1919) after peace treaties
Æ Southern Manchuria (1931): first diplomatic crisis - rests on consent of all powers
contributing/allowing to be participants in membership of an organization that rests on
collective security
- manifested as the lagging of troops and occupation of Manchuria
- Japanese left the league
Æ Anti-Comintern [Communist International] Pact (1936): after reoccupation of Rhineland
- pledged that they were against expansionist ideology, radical socialism, against
Soviet Union
Æ 15 divisions (Shanghai Æ Nanking) (1937): evolution of warfare
- "Undeclared war" -- landed ~500 000 troops from Shanghai Æ Nanking to
perpetrate atrocities to threat/terrorize Chinese
* area occupied on China was rich but nonpassive (became problem)
- lack of raw materials not solved by occupation of China
- lingering guerrilla continued until Mao
* low industrial production for war remained (empires are not profitable)
- holding land/territory is not the same as acquiring wealth
* lack of merchant marine (capacity to transfer resources back to Japan)
* at war, and must prioritize navy to hold occupation and territory/status
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