HISB31H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: New York Journal-American, American Imperialism, Civilizing Mission

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Published on 19 Nov 2011
JAN 21
Spanish-American War 1898
Cuban revolution vs. Spain
Started as a civil war (against the Spanish rule in cuba)
“The Maine” controversy- to get US congress to get involved
Congress did not pay attention (they were not sure how the ship was sunk)
There was a campaign in the New York Journal (by Hearst) and the World (by Pulitzer)
They were told to advocate for US favour in entering the war
They replied that there wasn’t really a matter there and that there wasn’t a story there
The government said “you furnish the pictures, I’ll furnish the war”
This meant that they wanted the media to sway and put pressure on congress to allow funds
Both journalists did it
For a whole month, they published stories and achieved the goal
Pulitzer made “remember the maine, to hell with spain”
This allowed the American entry into war
In democratic states, the government couldn’t be held accountable unless it was backed by
public opinion
Media became a monopoly of government
US asked the Spanish to ceasefire
After even an ultimatum, the US invades and won Cuba within 4 months with 460 dead
Theodore Roosevelt took part in the war and was the governor of New York
At the end, there was no annexation of cuba
They wanted compensation, taken from spain for $400 million
They took from spain, Puerto Rico and Guam (spread of American power of both oceans)
From an internal matter between Cuba and Spain, it resulted in American-Spanish war
The Americans looked to another Spanish holding: Philippines
They sailed into Manila using the argument that they were asserting control and freeing
They declared Philippines as a colony of the US
President Mckinley: Occupation
Aguinaldo started a 3 year long guerrilla against the US
At the end, the Philippines were secure as an American colony
The Americans were interested in China (previously controlled by British)
Secretary State John Hay tried to negotiate the open door (idea that the stronger economy had
the right to trade and extract resources and that the receiving nation could not be resisted)
with china
US wanted to avoid conflict so Hay wanted to negotiate with the British in Hong Kong
A rebellion began against Britain in China called The Rebellion of the Fists of Righteous
Harmony (the Boxer Rebellion) vs. Imperialism
The Chinese lost
Ch’ing Empress allows rebellion
Allied control China (1900)
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