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Lecture 9

HISB31H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Psychological Trauma, Execution By Firing Squad

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Neville Panthaki

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PHASE TWO of WW1: Attempt to Break Deadlock: (longest phase)
Gallipoli (April 25, 1915 to Jan 1916)
battle of attrition
allied attempt, defeat Turkey
ottoman turks were the weakest, the austrians second
tried to cause problems between germans and their allies
6 landings were attempted before they reached the beach, ½ lost (8000)
To attacks the turks, you had to go through meditarranean and stop on the beach
This was something that wasn’t done before, so it was very difficult
Turks held the cliffs
Britain made trenches in the beach (they were there for 8 and a half months)
Jan 1916, they called it off
The retreat was bloody, 250K died just trying to get to the ships (major failure)
Verdun: Strategy Attrition (Feb-Dec 1916)
The german general Falkenhayn decides that Verdun should be the location because it is on
the road to Paris
If it falls, Paris is open
Verdun is a fort and used by Napoleon (point of French pride)
He did not want to win this battle
He wanted a 3:1 death ratio 3 french soldier dead by 1 german
He wanted to kill the French army so that next time there will be less of them
So he did not want to win the battle of gain territory. It was an attempt to bleed the French
German strategy was to open up 9 hour barrage, 850 guns (artillerary pieces) over 8 miles
Terms like shell shock came up (psychological trauma faced by soldiers)
This was a strategy to mess with the people of Verdun
The French wins, many germans die
Falkenhayn achieved that whole French army rotated due to shell shock
Somme: Strategy Breakthrough (July- Nov 1916)
The british tried to help the French
Same as the Verdun but it’s with the British
Haig coins the term casualty acceptance (the “acceptable loss”)
It’s a disclaimer that in winning, a certain number of people will die
This was done to take pressure off Verdun
30 mile front is set up, “artillerary softening”
Haig takes the germans off guard
There is a 6 mile advance
He launches a cavalry charge
This battle was not successful
After the somme, 5000 man (wave) attack becomes the norm
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