British india: the british administered india as a subcontinent, as a single colony. India, pakistan, bangladesh and sri lanka were ruled by uk admin. James stuart mill: argued for vernacular, mass education (from a utilitarian point of view, for bottom-up transformation empowerment (educate people while keeping their values, reconcile various indian customs with british practises, continuity and evolution development. Ilbert bill 1883 got into trouble: census 1871 (the most damaging change by uk, for classification, taxation and recruitment, consequences to the outcome of colonial history and lingers even today: Creates social stagnation/entrenched (identities were imposed, but self- designation creates a hierarchy over what"s most important to each person) Caste/religious id as the prime identity before the british, caste wasn"t the prime identity, it was language before. Racial profiling in british mind: western obsession with singularity, codification, definition, based upon euro norms and bonded communities, to know, is to name, identify, compare , ordering of difference.