HISB31H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Thomas Babington Macaulay, Eugenics, Racial Profiling

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20 Nov 2011
British India
The british administered india as a subcontinent, as a single colony
India (1600-1858) was ruled by British East India Company (Madras 1639), (Bombay, 1661)
and (Calcutta, 1696) 3 administrative bodies
After mutiny of 1857, UK implemented direct rule until 1947
oWest Pakistan (1947)
oEast Pakistan Bangladesh (1972)
UK tried to group diverse groups together
Ruled Ceylon (Sri Lanka) through the Madras Presidency from 1795-1948
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka were ruled by UK admin
Burma annexed to India (1826-86) crown colony Burma (1937-1948) Myanmar (1989)
UK tried to create a single administration over a very diverse population
British tried to impose power through the English language
James Stuart Mill:
Argued for vernacular
Mass education (from a utilitarian point of view)
For bottom-up transformation empowerment (educate people while keeping their values)
Reconcile various Indian customs with british practises
Continuity and evolution development
Thomas Macaulay
Argued for a uniform English language English medium schools
Elite education (create hierarchy through language, where English is at the top)
Top-down filtered (create educated classes)
Replace Indian customs with british law
Break with the past
Direct Rule (1858-1947)
Mutiny represented nationalism
Diverse groups unified for a single cause
Weaponry evolved where it was self-contained (the cartridge of gun was packaged together,
made it easier)
When this was introduced, the grease was made of cow and pig, offending both hindus and
East India Company was replaced by the Govt of UK (who sent a viceroy, a delegate to
administer and set up admin)
Govt began a recruitment shift of army, instead of eastern provinces (Bengal) it went to
Punjab (1844-48)
oThis was because the Punjab were submissive and it did not rise for the revolt
oThe Punjab were used to put down the northern people, leaving a lingering hostility
between the groups
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