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2 Jan 2011
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x Why: 20th Century: Themes
o Quantity and Quality of Change
o Historical Record
o Change Government (Monarchy and Empire Æ Nation)
o Euro-Centric Æ Diversity
o Particular/Regional Æ Global
o Human Involvement (Common)
o Universality of Experience
o Mass EffectCommunication, Carnage, Migration
The Last European Century: 1815 1914
x 1815 was the last time there was an European war with Napoleon and then there was 100 years of peace marking their
empire and power
x French Revolution & Napoleonic Wars—1789 – 1815
o called the war to end all wars
o disrupted balance of power vs. hegemony (domination) of France and revolutionary ideals (liberty, fraternity,
equality, republic, nationalism, anti-Church)
o coalition of Europe against France
o the meaning of war began to change with the French Revolution instead of just fighting for your King
x restoration: Metternich1815 – 1853
o Metternich—head of government for Austria, Chancellor Austria (close to being Prime Minister)
o most threatened by shift of ideals in Europe after French Revolution
o sought to prevent change in terms of ideology and restore what was prior to French Revolution (
homogeneous race, language, religion)
o Holy Alliance (Austria, Russia, Prussia)—all 3 were ruled by autocratic houses, all had a multi-national
population threatened by ideals—stood for turning back time to when Europe was based on 3 cornerstones
from French Revolution Æ monarchy, church, conservatism
o soon became Quadruple Alliance (Holy Alliance + Britain) and then included France to become Quintuple
Alliance—the major European powers in that time
o Concert of Europe—Austria, Russia, Prussia, Britain, and France—took on the Congress System (no upheaval,
no revolutionary conflict)—collective decisions/solutions
The Industrial Revolution
x had begun just before the French Revolution, but the French Revolution disrupted the Industrial Revolution
x Industrial Revolutiontechnological (mechanization), economic (capitalism), social (demographic)—multiplier effect
1. manufacturing (hand/craft) Æ machine
2. productivity increases, cost decreases
3. domestic trade increases
4. employment increases, purchasing power increases
5. demand for goods increases
6. quest for raw materials increases (overseas)
x provided engines of imperialism for Europe
My Ideas for Topics for Research Paper
x Change in women rights during WWI in European nations
x Social change in British colonies after British Empires crumbled
x Political changes during WWI
x Military change in British Empires during WWI and WWII
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Document Summary

N why: 20th century: themes: quantity and quality of change, historical record, change government (monarchy and empire nation, euro-centric diversity, particular/regional global, human involvement (common, universality of experience, mass effect communication, carnage, migration. 1815 was the last time there was an european war with napoleon and then there was 100 years of peace marking their empire and power. Alliance the major european powers in that time: concert of europe austria, russia, prussia, britain, and france took on the congress system (no upheaval, no revolutionary conflict) collective decisions/solutions. N had begun just before the french revolution, but the french revolution disrupted the industrial revolution. Industrial revolution technological (mechanization), economic (capitalism), social (demographic) multiplier effect: manufacturing (hand/craft) machine, productivity increases, cost decreases, domestic trade increases, employment increases, purchasing power increases, demand for goods increases, quest for raw materials increases (overseas) N change in women rights during wwi in european nations.

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