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History (700)
Lecture

Lecture notes week 1


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki

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x Tutorials start next week
x Why: 20th Century: Themes
o Quantity and Quality of Change
o Historical Record
o Change Government (Monarchy and Empire Æ Nation)
o Euro-Centric Æ Diversity
o Particular/Regional Æ Global
o Human Involvement (Common)
o Universality of Experience
o Mass EffectCommunication, Carnage, Migration
The Last European Century: 1815 1914
x 1815 was the last time there was an European war with Napoleon and then there was 100 years of peace marking their
empire and power
x French Revolution & Napoleonic Wars—1789 – 1815
o called the war to end all wars
o disrupted balance of power vs. hegemony (domination) of France and revolutionary ideals (liberty, fraternity,
equality, republic, nationalism, anti-Church)
o coalition of Europe against France
o the meaning of war began to change with the French Revolution instead of just fighting for your King
x restoration: Metternich1815 – 1853
o Metternich—head of government for Austria, Chancellor Austria (close to being Prime Minister)
o most threatened by shift of ideals in Europe after French Revolution
o sought to prevent change in terms of ideology and restore what was prior to French Revolution (
homogeneous race, language, religion)
o Holy Alliance (Austria, Russia, Prussia)—all 3 were ruled by autocratic houses, all had a multi-national
population threatened by ideals—stood for turning back time to when Europe was based on 3 cornerstones
from French Revolution Æ monarchy, church, conservatism
o soon became Quadruple Alliance (Holy Alliance + Britain) and then included France to become Quintuple
Alliance—the major European powers in that time
o Concert of Europe—Austria, Russia, Prussia, Britain, and France—took on the Congress System (no upheaval,
no revolutionary conflict)—collective decisions/solutions
The Industrial Revolution
x had begun just before the French Revolution, but the French Revolution disrupted the Industrial Revolution
x Industrial Revolutiontechnological (mechanization), economic (capitalism), social (demographic)—multiplier effect
1. manufacturing (hand/craft) Æ machine
2. productivity increases, cost decreases
3. domestic trade increases
4. employment increases, purchasing power increases
5. demand for goods increases
6. quest for raw materials increases (overseas)
x provided engines of imperialism for Europe
My Ideas for Topics for Research Paper
x Change in women rights during WWI in European nations
x Social change in British colonies after British Empires crumbled
x Political changes during WWI
x Military change in British Empires during WWI and WWII
www.notesolution.com
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