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Lecture 2

Lecture notes week 2


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Lecture
2

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Scramble for Africa
x 1880 – 1914 (increased European competition)
x Britain usually kept their colonies separate, but France combined their colonies in Africa
x Industrial revolution Æ economic expansion Æ quest for raw materials Æ imperialism
x Periphery Æ interior (consolidation)
x Bringing order to chaos—lack of borders
o Geometric borders became the norm
o Ethno-cultural groups dividedmore than 190 ethno-cultural groups
o Bound diversity (with no prior history)
o Lack of geographic unity (zones of climate)
o 10 000 (African) units—whether tribal, cultural, climate Æ 40 (European) units
x Indirect rule—happened mostly everywhere
o Self-supporting colony for maximum profit (no overhead, maximum exploitation)
o Industry/economy (monopoly commercial company)
o Government (order, tax, logistics, elites)
o Cultural imprint minimal (at least in African case), but regression/deterioration in standard of
living/education/economic ability of countries Æ stagnation Æ lack of development Æ compound problems
Nigeria
x North (½ pop of Nigeria) Æ Muslim (religion)
Æ Hausa (lingual)
Æ Fulani (feudal economic class—government system)
x Northern section put together with Western and Southern groups of Nigeria
x West (Lagos) Æ Native/Christian (religion)
Æ Yoruba (lingual)
Æ Tribal/Zonal Kingdom (government system)
x East (Poor) Æ migrant into north and west and best educated as well
Æ Native/Christian (religion)
Æ Igbo (lingual)
Æ Autonomous Village Units (government system)
Belgian Congo (Zaire/Democratic Republic of Congo)
x Léopold II—set up Congo as an enterprise not as colony Æ hired Henry Stanley (1878 1883)
x 400 chiefs to sign treaties (network)
x European Recognition 1885 (1 million square miles)— Léopold got Congo
x First export was ivory
x Then rubber was exported, increasing 6000 times in just 11 years (1890 1 tonnes Æ 1901 6000 tonnes)
Joseph Conrad ÆHeart of Darkness”
x 1885 1908—10 million killed = ½ population of Congo
x Triumvirate (1908) (power of three) Æ government (administration)
Æ Church (welfare) (conversion of 1/3 population)
Æ mining corporation (economic)
x Richest colony:
Copper Æ 10% world
Diamonds Æ 70% world
Cobalt Æ 50% world
x Estimated taken from Congo from 1885 to 1950 is about $3 trillion in current terms
Ruanda Urundi (Rwanda)
x Tutsi (15% population) (feudal elite) Æ Hutu (bonded labour)
x Exclusively autocratic class ruling was Tutsi and exclusively the bonded labour was Hutu
x Tutsi King Æ Tutsi Cattle Chiefs (pledged allegiance to King)
Æ Hutu Land Chiefs (pledged allegiance to King)
Æ Army (Warrior) Chiefs (pledged allegiance to King)
x Class racial, ethnic difference
x German (first to make Ruanda and Urundi into one colony) Æ Belgian (census and ID card)
x Entrench and aggravate
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