Lecture notes week 3

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2 Jan 2011
American Civil War (1861 – 1865)
x industrialization (economic expansion, labour) Æ westward expansion (railroad) Æ slavery (expanded/profit)
x ¼ dead from total participants Æ all other US wars, there were about 600 000 dead
x in 1776, there were 4 million population and 13 states
x in 1861, there were 31 million population and 33 states
x slavery
o began in 1619 and by 1776 (American independence) 1/6 of the population were enslaved
o slavery did not start the American Civil War, instead it was the economic impact of slavery that started it
o north control trade—northern states controlled the movement of labour; they imported most of the labour and
slaves and then distributed them to the south
o north abolish slave trade in 1808, which didn’t affect them as much—they were not as much agrarian as the south
o the north controlled it for the profit, not for the use of the slaves
o south—tobacco plantations (Virginia), rice plantations (South Carolina), sugar plantations (all throughout), cotton
plantations (all throughout) Æ cotton gin 1790s
o when the north began to abolish slavery, it began to affect the south
o by 1861, 90% of European cotton supply came from the US and 50% of cotton produced in the US was exported
o Compromises of 1850 (Fugitive Slave Law)—black slaves that had fled from the south to the north, would be
given back to the south
o 95% blacks in the south represented 1/3 of the southern total population
o 5% blacks in the north represented 1% of the northern total population
o abolition = several definitions
immediate—everything happens now
gradual process—transfer gradually from slavery to other forms of labour
propertiedfreedom with or without land
segregated—white lives separately and black lives separately
x Civil War Context (1861 – 1865)
o reason for civil war—states versus federal rights
as American economy grew, slavery territory grew as well
possible abolition consequences on the economy of the south and southwest
slavery ends 1865
Black Leaders and Movements
x Booker T. Washington (1856 – 1915)
o southern-born Black
o accommodation within south with black government in the south
x W.E.B. DuBois (1868 – 1963) (Massachusetts)
o northern-born Black
o Pan-African movement
o NAACP leader (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People), which was against Booker T.
Washingtons ideals and points
o affected by Russian Revolution—3rd world solidarity, non-alignment
o invited by Nkrumah, when Ghana gained independence to start work on the history of Africa from the perspective
of Africans, called Encyclopaedia Africana
o US refuse passport, which meant that he died in Ghana because he wasn’t allowed to come back
x Marcus Garvey (1887 – 1940) (Jamaica)
o born in West Indies in Jamaica, but affected by the same things
o Back to Africa Movement (1912 –)
o felt that Booker T. was too passive and DuBois was too naïve because he started NAACP
o founded many associations that competed with the NAACPUnited Negro Improvement Association (UNIA),
and African Communities League (ACL)—the members were greater than the civil rights movement
o Garvey saw things from the outside—saw British administrated Jamaica and compared it American policies
o stressed racial purity from 1921 to the end of his life—Black purity
o this put him very much against DuBois and what NAACP was doing, which didn’t talk about ‘not Black enough’
like Garvey always talked about in racial purity
o Liberian Program of the US
o The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Colour of America
set up by white people and run by them
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