Lecture notes week 8

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2 Jan 2011

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Feb. Æ Nov.: Revolutions of 1917
x dual powerprovisional government (March 2) and Petrograd Soviet
x Soviet in Russian means council (to council”)
x Petrograd Soviet
o Order #1 was signed on March 1—Petrograd Soviet had all rights to exist, the provisional government had no
right to exist, and the provisional government had already disgraced itself
o Lenin created the April Theses on April 3—reiterated his points and added new points
Bolsheviks would withdraw if any member participated in both Bolsheviks and Petrograd Soviet
he did not want a coalition basically—the Bolsheviks would not collaborate with any other party unless
the other party had the same platform as the Bolsheviks
end to war—Lenin knew that the Russians would not win the war, and wanted to withdraw
land reform—main problem of the nation, which was landed rights, so he stood for immediate
action—those who worked the land, owned the land, disowning the landlords
all power to Soviets—legitimate power of the government should be in the Soviets Æ bottom-
up councils in every city to the head of the nation
x Kornilov Affair (end August)
o by the end of August, the provisional government tried to use force to solve the problem
o they tried to organize a coup from the top through General Kornilov
o they wanted to use the troops and surround the Petrograd Soviet and dissemble them
o the General brought in his troops and tried to disarm the provisional government, but the Petrograd Soviet fought
the troops and they won Æ the provisional government was discredited and Petrograd Soviet had more power
x Bolsheviks vote seize power (Oct. 23)
o even after Kornilov Affair, there was no end to fight between Petrograd Soviet and the provisional government
o they named Nov. 7 the day to seize power from the provisional government
x revolution Nov. 7
o overnight the Bolsheviks seized key parts of the capital
o the provisional government had no way to stop the seizure and no power
o overnight the Bolsheviks not only seized key parts of the capital, but also seized power
o Lenin pulled out of the war, announced that Soviets should be made in every city
x Civil War 1918 – 1921
o there is a civil war (Bolsheviks against Royal Forces) Æ Reds against Whites
o the Bolsheviks did the following after seizing power Æ pull out of the war, not honour any treaties made during
the Tsar’s time, and would not hold to the treaties with Britain and France made on the Ottoman territory
o all of these things started to create problems between Russia and the world
o Japan sent 60 000 troops, USA sent 10 000 troops, French and German sent 30 000 troops together, and Great
Britain sent in 40 000 troops Æ they all landed in different places around Russia, which the Bolsheviks were
able to fight off because it was not coordinated and not in the same place
o the Cold War (Russia vs. the world) actually started on Nov. 7, 1917 when the Bolsheviks seized power
x World War I losses
o 26% population (60 million) Æ Baltic states, Poland, Finland were all let go
o 27% fertile land Æ from the 26% area lost
o 33% manufacturing industry Æ from the 26% area lost
o 20 million died from the war, civil war, and influenza – plague along with 2 million emigrating (intelligentsia)
x this means that Russia is not really alive because the people left are not educated beyond 1st or 2nd grade
x Russia lost many people from the war and the civil war, and also to emigration Æ the intelligentsia population
x in 1922, there is an assassination attempt on Lenin, which fails, but he is paralyzed on the left-side down
x near the end of his life, Lenin is not able to talk even
x basically Lenin did not have a plan really, everything just sort of falls into place except for his last point
x Lenin dies in 1924
o between 1924 and 1928 (when Stalin comes to power) there is a void in power
o party factionalism Æ what do we do now
left—Trotsky (charismatic Æ most educated in all of Russia, close to Lenin, trusts Marxism, but quite
hot-headed; was a Menshevik; created the Red Army)—Trotsky says using the Red Army, invade
countries in the world and force the Soviet revolution to occur; when the split of Russia occurs, he was
a Menshevik and supported Marxism, but now looks radical, though still Marxist
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