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2 Jan 2011
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Weimar Republic
x at the end of WWI, the Monarch collapsed Æ it was an organized collapsed
x November 10, 1918: the German Monarchy collapsed
o even before, from about 1916, the German military and the high command were in command
o by 1916, the King although still the figurehead of Germany, the government was in control of the high command
o when the high command understood that they couldn’t win the war, they let the monarchy fall
o the army was in charge for 1 to 1 ½ years before the collapse
o the army wanted to surrender because they knew that they wouldn’t be able to win
o however, they knew that they couldn’t leave the war, so they needed a scapegoat
o the reasons that the army couldn’t just surrender because: (1) they wanted to be rid of the monarchy and they
also wanted to retain control, and (2) they didn’t want to be hated
o so basically, the army pulled their support from the monarchy and allowed a caretaker government in, in the
form of the Social Democrats (SD) Æ the caretaker government signed the armistice the next day
x March 13, 1920: Kapp Putsch (army control)
o Kapp said that since the caretaker government was under army control, then get rid of the caretaker government
and take control openly
o however, the high command said that if that happened, then the Allied governments might come in and restore
the monarchy and bring down the army and the caretaker government
o Kapp organized a putsch (coup), which actually failed, but benefited the high command Æ the army was able to
expand and actually gain more power after the Kapp Putsch
o this begins to change the fascist party’s role as well
x November 6 – 8, 1923: Munich Putsch (emergency powers)
o the fascists are at a pub and after drinking a lot, spill out on the road and start to revolt
o the high command puts the putsch down
o at this time, the Nazi fascist party is starting to become a thorn in the army
x 1928 – 1931: Army Nazi rapprochement (Nazis join army)
o however, like in Italy, the Nazi party is starting to gain power
o the people are blaming everything on the government, since they don’t know that the army is actually in power
o at this time, the army decides to create an understanding or a rapprochement with the Nazi party
o the understanding reached is that the army allows fascism to grow and crack away at the government, as long as
the fascists do not try to take over the streets
o they also make the mistake of letting the fascists join the army
x 1931 1932: Schleicher Chancellor (President Hindenburg refuses Hitler)
o this period is the high point of army control as one of their own is declared chancellor
o the only thing stopping Schleicher from making chancellor is the president Hindenburg
o however, Hindenburg allows Schleicher to become chancellor because the only other choice is Hitler’s Nazis,
but Hindenburg does not like Hitler and the Nazis
o this leads to a breakdown of the Army – Nazi rapprochement
o from this point onwards, the Nazis work against the government and the high command
x January 1933: Hindenburg refuses emergency powers to Schleicher
o the army has the power to rule over the streets through hooliganism
o however, for this, the government would have to get emergency powers
o Hindenburg refuses to give Schleicher the emergency powers and due to this the Schleicher government falls
o Hindenburg then gives power to Hitler, who forms the government
x February 1933: Bans Communist Party
o the first thing that Hitler does is ban the communist party because it is bigger than the fascist party
o when Hitler bans them, no one says anything, not even the military, because the military, who are getting pushed
out, does not like the communists either
o it takes until May to outlaw the communist party
o this is the only thing that Hitler does constitutionally
x March 1933: suspends constitution
o Hitler cannot do this himself, Hindenburg has to do it, but Hitler still does it before approaching Hindenburg
x June 30, 1934: “Night of Long Knives”
o the next thing that Hitler does is purge the old army through his new army
o Hitler started to organize a new militia when coming to power, called the SS
o once his new militia is organized, Hitler gets rid of, suspends, and kills his old allies
o basically the SS eliminates the SA Æ the new fascists get rid of the old fascists
o now Hitler has a new militia completely loyal to him
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x July 1934: Nazis as sole party
o Nazis say that there can be no loyal oppositions because how can a person be loyal and in opposition
o this knocks off the last aspect of democracy
x August 1, 1934: Hindenburg dies
o the only thing that Hitler has left is to become president since the president has a lot of other powers
o however, before Hitler can do anything, Hindenburg dies
o after Hindenburg’s death, Hitler declares himself as head of state
x March 16, 1935: rearmament decree
o even though Hitler had been organizing a big army with help from the Soviets since 1922, the open declaration is
a clear sign of disrespect for the Versailles Treaty, Britain, France, and the US
o this is the first open declaration that Germany and Hitler are now very strong
x February 1938: Purge of the “Vons”
o in 1938, Hitler looks at the military and the political fascist party
o he removes anyone who is not fascist Æ military is completely a fascist party
o to do this, he has to purge certain people Æ purges the “Vons” (noble class in Germany)
o the Vons were both in the political and military parties
o so in 1938, Hitler basically got rid of all the Vons Æ aristocracy in political party and military are removed
x now there is nothing stopping Hitler from launching aggression
Anti – Jewish Policy
x there were a lot of inaccuracies in the history of the anti-Jewish policies of Hitler
x while Hitler wanted to kill off all the Jewish, however, he did not know how he did not know how
x while the Holocaust happened, the forms of killing were not planned from before
x no plan Æ how to kill them, when to kill them, where to kill them
o it is all ad hoc Æ whatever comes to circumstances
o in terms of circumstance, it is what he is able to do, that is what emerges
x culmination of policy in war with Soviet Union (1941 – 1945)
o the only thing that is important to Hitler is the eastern territory and the crackdown of Soviet territory
o however, the only way to get to this is to launch a war with the British and the French
o the only way to get the eastern territory is to depopulate the land
x 1931 – 1935 (repression)
o Hitler does not have the military, political, and economical forms to kill all the Jews
o it is costly and that is why between 1931 and 1935, there is repression
o basic anti-Jewish legislation in a series of laws called the Nuremberg laws (definition of a Jew, interracial
marriage, proportion of the Jews, occupation, etc)
x 1936 – 1937 (Munich Olympics)
o this is suspended or suppressed because between 1936 and 1937 are the Olympics
o as long as Hitler is ranting against the Soviet Union, the British and the French applaud him
x 1938 – 1939 (pressure to emigrate)
o after the Olympics, Hitler steps up the repression, to get the Jews to emigrate
o there are pogroms like Kristallnacht
o this is a vehemence of policy since 1931 when the repression
o there are even crazy policies to send all the Jews to Madagascar
x 1939 – 1941 (ghettoization)
o the death camps start when there is military imprisonment
o this is different because the Jews are getting pushed out of the German borders into other countries, like France,
Luxembourg, Poland, Czechoslovakia, etc
o however, now that there is a war, Hitler doesnt want them to move, in fact, he wants them to be stagnate
x 1942 – 1945 (extermination)
o at Wansee, there is a meeting set up of all the heads of German society and question what they do now
o the heads of the army staff begin to say that they don’t want to be in charge of shooting the civilians
o they come with up with the next stage Æ you have ghettoized them, so now kill them
o the only problem left is how to kill the civilians
Political/Military Objectives and Race Theory
x Social Darwinism Æ on top are the Germans (misnamed the Aryans), then they are the sub-humans the Slavs, and
finally, the not human are the Jews
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Document Summary

N march 1933: suspends constitution: hitler cannot do this himself, hindenburg has to do it, but hitler still does it before approaching hindenburg. July 1934: nazis as sole party: nazis say that there can be no loyal oppositions because how can a person be loyal and in opposition this knocks off the last aspect of democracy. N while hitler wanted to kill off all the jewish, however, he did not know how he did not know how. N while the holocaust happened, the forms of killing were not planned from before. 1936 1937 (munich olympics) this is suspended or suppressed because between 1936 and 1937 are the olympics as long as hitler is ranting against the soviet union, the british and the french applaud him. 1939 1941 (ghettoization) the death camps start when there is military imprisonment this is different because the jews are getting pushed out of the german borders into other countries, like france,

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