Lecture 14.pdf

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16 Apr 2012
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Key Terms 11-09-19 10:11 AM
People
Mehmed II
Suleyman the Lawgiver
Hurrem Sultan
Mihrima Sultan
Places
Constantinople/Istanbul
Anatolia
Rumeil
Hejaz
Vienna
Concepts
Janissaries
Devshirme
Timar
Themes
Ottoman State as a “Globalizing Empire”
How was it unique, similar to other contemporary empires?
The Ottomans, Europe, & Eurocentrism
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Globalizing Empires: The Ottomans 11-09-19 10:11 AM
Similar location
o Considered selves as “New Rome”
Ottomans started in Istanbul, nomadic tribes who could takeover
crumbling cities in the outer byzantine empire
How They Expanded
Growth occurred from 1359 – 1856
Under Suleyman
Hajaz – sliver of Saudi Arabia along the dead sea included Holy city
Transformation to Globalizing Empire
Weakness of the Byzantine Empire
o Didn’t have the power to fight off the Ottomans
Offered conquered territories a system of justice
More methodical system of taxation
Not just religious
Islam: Didn’t try to enforce their religion & conversion
People converted because of the lenient taxation on Muslims
Many religious institutions were intact after takeover
Balkans: become heartland of ottoman state
o Called Rumeli, land of Romans
Constantinople
Conquest enabled weakness of Byzantine Empire
Strategic conquest
Controls access through Asia & Europe; Black Sea
Military
Recruitment
Hereditary Nobility
o Disadvantage: Work with incompetent people just because of
Genetics
Devshirme: the gathering/Collection: take most capable sons 8 –
12 years, bring them to Istanbul, train them, they then become
members of the sultan’s army
Others learned admin skills
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Children became the future, Elite: not by hereditary, by skill
Implications:
o Children who keep ties to family, but have a different world
view than their parents
o Spoke fluent Ottoman – Turkish, conversion to Islam
o Lost loyalty to Parents in favor of Sultan
Technically slaves
o I.e. janissaries
Different system to create elites compared to others
o Based on ability than family
Girls: Were also recruited into harem; main compound for women
in Sultan
o Highly educated received good training before leaving
Istanbul
o Active politically & diplomatically
o Recruited by military raids beyond frontier
o Hurram Sultan: She became the favorite concubine/wife of
Sultan Suleyman; very diplomatic, Invested in patronage
projects with daughter Mihrima sponsored two mosque
complexes. Both were Built monumental buildings throughout
capital city
Janissaries: lighting rod for other rulers; influential in changing
military practice. Incredibly loyal to sultan (from family to sultan);
well trained, used musical discipline
o Used by Ottoman Mehter: Musical band that accompanied
militaries during battle; shows unification, able to show
façade of disciplined, organized army
Ottomans & Safavid Competition with each other in Europe
Muslims: ottomans were unaccommodating
Political interest & religious orthodox strengthened Sultan’s claim.
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