Lecture 2 (fall 2010)

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Lecture 2 Canadian History
Early contacts between Aboriginals and Europeans
Try to answer the essay question as specifically as you can, and try to pay attention to the
wording of the question.
The Norse, c. 1000
-Eric the Red founds Greenland
-Vikings occupied Scandanavia and Norway
-Passed around stories in sagas (long poem)
oEntertain and glorify Norse tradition
-1300s, then were written down
-Earliest known contact between the Norse and NA took place in 1000 AD
-Eric the Red banished for murder
oFounded Greenland tales of exploration in 985 AD
-986 AD, Bjarni Herjolfsson, blown off course in Greenland, sighting of North
America by accident, Newfoundland or Labrador, first sight of NA by Europe
-Leif Eriksson, son of Eric the Red, tried to discover and colonize the new land, 1001
ad, sailed eastern course of NA, landed at 3 different sites,
oHelluland Baffin Island, flat stone
oMarkland heavily forested
oVinland Wineland, believed to be Newfoundland
-Thorvaldr Erikson, brother of Leif, settled in Vinland following year, sod dwellings,
less than 100 people
oHostile encounters with the natives, two leg, forerunners of the Inuits
oRefered to as the Skraelings, 1002-3
Sleep under skin boats, kayaks
Norse tried to kill all of them, killed 8
Skraelings killed the Norse, including Thorvaldr ended the Norse
-Early 1960s, Helga Ingstad, used the sagas as a reference point, actually turned out
to be a Viking settlement in Newfoundland
Columbus and other Early Explorers, 1492-1524
-Columbus and Hispaniola, 1492
oColumbus was remembered for discovered the New World and Caribbean,
enslaved the natives
Harshness of the Spanish regime was exemplified
-Giovanni Caboto (John Cabot) and Newfoundland, 1497
oSailed for England, called the Matthew, 20 people
oLooking for economic reasons: trying to find a passage to Asia, newer trade
route for finding wealth
oFind exploitable lands and resources fish, minerals
oPolitical reasons: obtain new lands, imperialism to showcase power
oMotivated other people: religious impulse, converting heathens to
Christianity to save them, later on important, good cover story for empires
who were seeking resources, justification for imperialism.
oSense of adventure: the unknown and dangers of outside, fame
oFound the coast of Newfoundland discovered the Grand Banks, most
remarkable resource for marine mammals and fish, great fishery for Europe.
Because of Catholic mass, not allowed to eat meat, so people needed
fish for protein
Profits abound, Cabot gets credit for finding Newfoundland in 1478
oWent back, never heard from again.
-Verrazzanos Arcadia, 1524 cartographers moved it near east and north, into
Maritimes, into Acadia
Jacques Cartier, 1491-1557
- Mariner from St. Malo, France
- Made 3 voyages to Canada (1534, 1535-36, 1541-42)
o1534: most groundbreaking
Sailing on behalf of France
2 ships and 60 men
Find direct route to China and India economic
First arrived at strait of Belle Isle
Newfoundland The land God gave to Cain
Bay of Chaleur encountered Micmacs and trading furs
Perplexed by European preferences because furs were
common in NA, European items were more valuable
Furs were seen as valuable by European items especially
beaver because it would be soft over time
oUsed as loincloth
Aboriginals were not victims early stages had the upper hand
in trading, Europeans were dependent
European goods metal, iron pots, muskets,
Encounter with St. Lawrence Iroquois
Met Donnacona, and Domayaga and Taignoagny
Friendly relations, Iroquois were visiting
As Cartier was leaving, necessary to claim territory for France
Erected a 30 foot wooden cross in July 24, 1534
oInterpreted as hostile, because they claimed that the
French were invading
oVerbal exchange
oLeft safely early, took the 2 sons of Donnacona
Persuaded Donnacona to allow education in
Europe or kidnapping
o1535-36: built a settlement and spent the winter there
Brought the 2 sons back
Travelled much farther down
Did not catch any diseases
Travelled up the St. Lawrence River
Encountered the Stadacona site of Quebec City Quebec means the
narrowing in Iroquois
Canada means village in Iroquois
Cartier named Canada after that word
Encountered longhouses surrounded by palisades
Found the Kingdom of the Saguenay for economic reasons
More men, 3 ships and 110 men
Pressed further up the river to Hochelaga (Mont Royal)
oTravelled up to the hill (Mont Royal) Montreal
oWarmly received by the people and pretended to heal
the sick people (faith healers)
Returned to Statacona, built a fort for the winter
oWere not friendly with the Iroquois
oLong and harsh winter outside the village
25 men died from scurvy, sickness
Boiling birch bark was a cure for scurvy, with
Vitamin C
Kept people alive through the spring
oTo protect his people, pretended to be active and all-
Went home, kidnapped people including the chief himself
Lured with the promise of an axe
10 Iroquois were kidnapped, none survived and perished from
European disesase
o1541-42: wasnt the captain, left the settlement early and left the people
Same route, but much larger undertaking by Roberval
1500 people, find a lasting settlement in NA in Statacona
Only Cartier left, Roberval made plans
Cap Rouge, settlement in 1541
Bad omen, Iroquois were hostile, 35 people were killed
Cartier lied, said that Donnaconna was living like kings in
Grueling survival, scurvy, winter, unprepared
Spring 1542, Cartier left for Newfoundland, met Roberval
Roberval wasnt prepared for Statacona, brutal winter 1542-43, many
perished and gave up, went back to France
Nothing came out of it, except hostility from Iroquois, France did not
come back
Trigger French interest in colonization in NA

Document Summary

Try to answer the essay question as specifically as you can, and try to pay attention to the wording of the question. Passed around stories in sagas (long poem: entertain and glorify norse tradition. Earliest known contact between the norse and na took place in 1000 ad. Eric the red banished for murder: founded greenland tales of exploration in 985 ad. 986 ad, bjarni herjolfsson, blown off course in greenland, sighting of north. America by accident, newfoundland or labrador, first sight of na by europe. Thorvaldr erikson, brother of leif, settled in vinland following year, sod dwellings, less than 100 people: hostile encounters with the natives, two leg, forerunners of the inuits, refered to as the skraelings, 1002-3.  norse tried to kill all of them, killed 8.  skraelings killed the norse, including thorvaldr ended the norse sagas. Early 1960s, helga ingstad, used the sagas as a reference point, actually turned out to be a viking settlement in newfoundland.