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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 (2010 fall)

Course Code
C Pennington

of 8
Lecture 3 Canadian History
The Royal Colony of New France, 1663-1763
-The absolutist system
-The โ€œCompact Colonyโ€ strategy
-Economy and society
The Situation of 1663
-Pop. Of New France: 3000
oClustered around St. Lawrence River
๎€Most important part
oUpper country
-7 to 1 male-female ratio โ€“ not good for procreation, most women are nuns
oNot sustained for population growth
oDiscouraged when fur trade companies are in control
-Iroquois attacks threatened the colonyโ€™s populaton
-Louis XIVโ€™s strategy โ€“ The Sun King
oDivine monarchy โ€“ absolute from God, unquestionable
oFur Trade and territory was a big investment
oCommitted the resources of France to New France
๎€Canada โ€“ St. Lawrence River Valley
oInvested in security of the colony
๎€Difficult to persuade people to come to New France due to Iroquois
๎€800 in Quebec (walled city), rest in scattered farmland vulnerable
๎€Send in a regiment of the French army โ€“ the Carginan-Salieres
Regiment, 1665.
โ€ขInexperienced, but a lot, 1200
โ€ขBoosted the population
โ€ขUniforms and muskets
โ€ขShowing force against the Iroquois
โ€ขMarched them into Iroquois territory
oIroquois retreated
oRegiment burned all Iroquois settlement โ€“ scared them
๎€Iroquois continued to harass New France โ€“ in
leagues with the English
๎€โ€œThe Colony of Canada now had protectionโ€
โ€ขMany stayed behind to start families
oHelped secure the outlines of the colonies
โ€ขHelped provide security and population growth
- Marriage โ€“ necessary for Louis XIV โ€“ sent filles du roi โ€“ daughters of the King
oFrom Paris, countryside, very young, 16-20, orphans or from poor families
๎€Provide with food or money to encourage them and start off
oSent to the Atlantic, after 1663, 800 filles du roi arrived in Canada
๎€Taken into the care of nuns
๎€Married off to males
oExpected to get married: other than that, become nuns
๎€No choice: get married but choose who
oPublic spectacle: competition for the females โ€“ men layed out their items to
prove their worth
๎€Materialistic โ€“ economic purposes for marriage
๎€Foundation of the population for New France
o10 yrs after, 1673 โ€“ 10 000 people in Canada
๎€Not much immigration from France itself not on a large scale
o1763 โ€“ 70 000 people in Canada
-The Governor
oSupreme authority in Canada and New France
๎€Obeyed the king only
๎€Defended the colony
๎€Colony was at war more than peace (Iroquois, English)
oMilitary, foreign affairs
๎€Relations with Aborignal tribes
๎€Hurons were destroyed
๎€Algonquian helped the French
๎€Needed cultural understanding of ones allies
โ€ขGift giving, exchange
โ€ขMuch closer than the English and Iroquois
oPomp and circumstance
๎€Reflect power of the king
๎€Awe everyone of how big and representative because help was far
โ€ขShowed power
oConte de Frontenac (1672-1682, 1689-98)
๎€Recalled by the King
๎€French nobility, soldier
๎€Lived extravagantly
๎€Came to Canada, because he was in debt
๎€Governor General in New France, debtors cant get him
โ€ขShowed pomp and circumstance โ€“
o had a band behind him
oCarried in an armchair when he traveled
oShow off
o1690, English Fleet of Quebec โ€“ didnโ€™t surrender to the
English, Frontenac showed them off, English left
โ€ขDid not run the colony as the same as the Intendant
-The Intendant
oCivilian and administrator
๎€Supplied the colony
๎€Kept the military running
oLaw and order
๎€No jails, no prison sentences
๎€Harsh system - no democracy
๎€Death penalty โ€“ treason, murder, indecent assault, homosexuality,
beastiality, rape, etc. lot of penalties
โ€ข80 people executed
๎€Ex. The Box โ€“ squished your leg using splints
๎€Justice was dealt swiftly
๎€Everyone had equal access to the law
๎€Lawyers were forbidden โ€“ civil law
๎€Swift, efficient, not really just
๎€Guilty was guilty after the fact
oEconomic growth
oThe Compact Colony Theory
๎€Colony should be small โ€“ self sufficient, easy to defend
๎€Frontenac disregarded it
โ€ขExpand fur trade โ€“ for profit
๎€Scrapped โ€“ even though it was a good strategy
oJean Talon, 1665-72
๎€Skilled administrator
๎€Hoped to create a self-sufficient colony relying on fur trade
โ€ขAgriculture, manufacturing
โ€ขDidnโ€™t work out โ€“ mercantilism โ€“ colonies were ports to ship
โ€ขNo govt support for New Franceโ€™s economy
โ€ขDependent on fishing, agriculture, fur trade, and breweries
-The Bishop โ€“ Bishop Laval (wont be in the midterm bonus) โ€“ Jewish cap, portrait
looking at the camera
oSpiritual and religious leadership
๎€Administration of the Catholic church
๎€Forbidden to be a Protestant
๎€Least important in the colony compared to the Governor and
๎€Hostile with the governor
๎€Catholic priests and nuns
๎€Social welfare
โ€ขSmall payments for the poor
๎€1686 โ€“ Bureau of the poor โ€“ welfare office
โ€ขLooked after by nuns