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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 (fall 2010)

Course Code
C Pennington

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Lecture 4 Canadian History before 1885
Midterm: Who, What Where, When – and explain the significance of the subject
Essay format test, 12 or so subjects, choose 4
-Significant subjects that have their own heading – only lecture material
Struggle for a Continent, 1663-1763
-French expansion and the Failure of the Compact Colony, to 1773
o1673, Frontenac arrived from France, aggressively pursue fur trade
oJean Talon (compact colony strategy)
-The Seven Years War, 1756-63
-Battle of the Plains of Abraham, 1759
-Conquest of New France, 1760-63
oA happy calamity” – best thing that could happen to the French, liberty,
democracy, and freedom in contrast to French govt
oConquest is like rape – tramatic event – another perspective
Alien group has seized control of the other group
War and Expansion, 1663-1754
-Imperial conquests between France and Britain were not between colonies - imperialism
-Founding of Fort Frontenac, 1673
oLocated near Kingston, Ontario
oMost outward fur trade post for the glory of France
-La Salle and Louisiana
oDispatched to the south, make contact with Aboriginals interested in trading
oTake territory for France – empty gesture – neither side could completely take
Only goodwill between Aborignals, then you can take land

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oClaimed Louisiana – in name of Louis XIV
oLa Salle killed by his own men
oExpanded the realm of New France
oCrown of France – did not like it
-War of the Grand Alliance, 1689-97
oMultiple European powers involved
oGuerrilla warfare on civilian settlements
o1690, English expedition – Frontenac showed them off and they fled
oFrench Crown changed strategy (see below)
-Abandonment of the “Compact Colony” strategy, 1701
oImperial strategy – hold as many territories as possible near the English colonies
o1701 – peace treaty with the Iroqouis
No Iroquois attacks for a time
-War of the Spanish sucession, 1701-13
oWho got to be the new king of Spain
-War of the Austrian sucession, 1744-48
oWho go to be the king of Austria
-Both of these conflicts were spilled in NA colonies – guerrilla warfare
o1713, Treaty of Utrecht, British claimed control of the Maritimes
oNew France was in trouble and in danger
-Persistent warfare
The Odds of the Seven Years War – struggle for North America between French and British
-Previous wars and conflicts were inconclusive

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oBritish had bigger population – 1 million people
oNew France – 50, 000 people
oFrance was authoritarian
Efficient – authority could make bold and fast decisions
Military leadership and footing
Resources could be mobilized
oBritish colonies, legislator, governor – conflict with making decisions
Democratic society
Difficult to manage to colony as a result
-Military Strength
oDid not think highly of the American militia
James Wolf – dirtiest, worst soldiers in the universe
oFrench Canadian miltia was superior to the Americans
Customed to defend their own territory, colony was more military
cultured, coordinate better
oBritish militia – unison and fired in line with red coats
oFrench allies
Many other Aboriginal tribes
oBritish allies
Iroquois – less active and didn’t participate much
-Support from Europe
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