January 16th (2) Lecture Note.docx

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2 Apr 2012
Canadian History since 1885: The “Progressive” social reform movement
January 16th, 2012
(1) Introduction: Progressive social reform:
Lowe wages
High rents
Most workers lived below the poverty line
The emerge of slums
Prostitution, alcoholism
Unions: Strikes, pressure gov’t for working laws
The poor were fighting to survive
The Middle-Class were called “Progressives”
Middle-Class, Protestants, Women (+)
Progressivism: So many groups for public reforms, town
planning, city modifications, government utility (street-
cars, hydro). Diverse movement
All progressives: (2) similar class
(a) Wanted to create a planning society (prostitution,
disorder, traditional values).Urban live, safer, and
- Working conditions
- Social Reforms
- Wanted to restore civil
(b) Reform can only be achieved through government
(resources, expertise) Only the state had the money to
hire public health nurses, town planners
The Distinctiveness: New vs. Old
- Earlier reforms wanted the church to regulate social problems
- New Reforms wanted the government to regulate social problems
- Origins of social problems individual behaviour
`Change individual, change the community` (Old)
`Change the society; change the individual` (New)
Social Gospel: Individual conversion was not the answer to society. To be a good
Middle Class (Protestant/Christians) turned into the government
Intellectual Origins of the Progressive and Women`s Movements: The Cult of
Domesticity and Maternal Feminism.
(1) The YWCA (Women`s movement)
The cult of domesticity
The Spread of women organizations
Key Words:
- Domestic Ideal
- Prohibition
- Voluntaristic
- Suffrage
- Babylon
- Sabbatarians
- Social Purity
- Moral Guardians
- Woodsworth
- Big Sister Movement
- Beautification
- Intemperance YWCA
- Welfare State
- Social Gospel
- Leticia Youman S.
- Intemperance Chastity
- Evangelical
- Referenda
- R. Connor
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