Frustration in Manitoba
-Governed by conservative premier John Norquay
-There was a frustration against Macdonald because of the railway which was completed in
1885, which was the steel backbone of the country
-Farmers hated because it was expensive freight rate across the country
-The wealth of the railway was equal to the government and thought highly of itself
-The CPR has a monopoly for 20 years, and when Manitoba wanted to connect to the US to
spur market, then Macdonald disallowed it
-Macdonald treated the provinces like they were naughty children because he has the power
to shut down the decisions made by the Provincial government.
-Norquay is not French or English, but of Metis descent.
-Norquay was a 6.5 and over 300 pounds and a large man.
-He was well liked in Manitoba, and was conservative and was willing to fight the
conservative federal government.
The Threat of Secession in Nova Scotia
-They did not want to be part of confederation
-Political leader, WS Fielding, was elected with a huge leading
-Economic times were hard in the late 19th century
-From what was a proud British colony was now a small colony in confederation with little
influence and dissolving nationhood from the bonds of confederation.
-British did not allow for them to gain independence to prevent the dissolving of
confederation and they could not bear to join the United States.
The “Compact Theory” in Ontario
Judicial Committee of Privy Council
-Mowat was the most powerful politician in Canada at the time.
-He was an old guy that worked with Macdonald and he had arguments with Macdonald
-Mowat was a prominent advocate of the Compact Theory
-The Theory was that the provinces had come together to make the federal government, and
that they should hold the power because they made confederation.
-Felt that because they made confederation, they can also unmake it.
-The JCPC agreed with the theory.
-The JCPC ruled in favour of the provinces when there were problems with the provinces.
-The JCPC did not know this was simply because Britain did not know a lot about provinces
and believed that there should be fair power.
-Mowat stayed as the Premier of Ontario because he thought it was a better job than a PM.