HISB41 – Canadian History Since 1885
-The 5 W’s
-Significance, and its impact on Canadian History
-Only 4 out of 10-12 will be on it
-Marked out of 40
-Each answer is worth 10
-There is a bonus section with pictures (2.5 extra marks)
-January 20 is the start date
-Due March 10th, before class begins in his office
-8-10 pages, title page and bibliography not included
National Policies and Problems, 1885-96
-About 18 years of age at the time
-Although the confederation was a triumphant moment, but it was a point of failure because
there was no way to bring everyone together and ground everything
-Great sense of unease and sentiment of collapse and doomed to failure
-The different provincial government railed against the federal government over a variety of
issues because they could not get along
-Question of what relationship of Canada with US ought to be is undecided at this point
(Difference? What is better about us compared to them?)
-Some believed that Canada should be very close to Canada, and a small minority felt that
it was in Canada’s destiny to be with the United States
-The other question was Race and Religion, and this was not the factor that would bring
Canada together because this was not the foundation of the country, but with a compromise
English protestants and French Catholics.
Continentalism and the “Loyalty Election” of 1891
Manitoba School Crisis, 1890-1896
-It was about what school there was to be in Manitoba, but on a broader scope whether
Canada is to be a biliungual country or not.
-What type of school should be in place in Manitoba?
The Dominion of Canada in 1885
***Sir John A Macdonald, Prime Minister 1867-73, 1878-1891***
Self-governing colony of the British Empire
Population: 4.5 Million (70% British and 30% French)
-Population was about 70% British and 30% French
-Many were also German
-All of the French were descendants of the settlers in New France, and many of them lived
in New France, which has an 80% French speaking population
-British inhabited almost all the other provinces, included English, Irish, Welsh and
Scottish, but Irish was the largest.
-Irish were people who were usually shunned and tended to be poorer and worked wage
labour (stepped upon on).
-Does not seem too many ethnic groups, but it was a large amount for the people at the
Resource-based economy with struggling “infant industries”
-No large manufacturing sector
-1879, they introduced the national policy (high tariffs on Britain to import to Canada)
-This helped eliminate the competition from foreign markets and build up manufacturing
district, to what Macdonald called the Infant Industries, who could not compete with any
-1887, when the political party wanted to make Free Trade, but the Manufacturing council
sent out a campaign stating that to make free trade is like making a boy compete with a
White, Rural, Christian society
-Rural, every 3-4 people gained a living out of agriculture (as well as fishing and logging)
-Almost everyone was Christians, minority of Jews, no Muslims, and thus a very
homogenous religion but the protestants and Catholics clash often.
The Fight for “Provincial Rights”
***Oliver Mowat, Premier of Ontario 1872-1896***
Frustration in Manitoba
-Governed by conservative premier John Norquay
-There was a frustration against Macdonald because of the railway which was completed in
1885, which was the steel backbone of the country
-Farmers hated because it was expensive freight rate across the country
-The wealth of the railway was equal to the government and thought highly of itself
-The CPR has a monopoly for 20 years, and when Manitoba wanted to connect to the US to
spur market, then Macdonald disallowed it
-Macdonald treated the provinces like they were naughty children because he has the power
to shut down the decisions made by the Provincial government.
-Norquay is not French or English, but of Metis descent.
-Norquay was a 6.5 and over 300 pounds and a large man.
-He was well liked in Manitoba, and was conservative and was willing to fight the
conservative federal government.
The Threat of Secession in Nova Scotia
-They did not want to be part of confederation
-Political leader, WS Fielding, was elected with a huge leading
-Economic times were hard in the late 19th century
-From what was a proud British colony was now a small colony in confederation with little
influence and dissolving nationhood from the bonds of confederation.
-British did not allow for them to gain independence to prevent the dissolving of
confederation and they could not bear to join the United States.
The “Compact Theory” in Ontario
Judicial Committee of Privy Council
-Mowat was the most powerful politician in Canada at the time.
-He was an old guy that worked with Macdonald and he had arguments with Macdonald
-Mowat was a prominent advocate of the Compact Theory
-The Theory was that the provinces had come together to make the federal government, and
that they should hold the power because they made confederation.
-Felt that because they made confederation, they can also unmake it.
-The JCPC agreed with the theory.
-The JCPC ruled in favour of the provinces when there were problems with the provinces.
-The JCPC did not know this was simply because Britain did not know a lot about provinces
and believed that there should be fair power.
-Mowat stayed as the Premier of Ontario because he thought it was a better job than a PM.