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Lecture 03 - HISB41

Course Code
C Pennington

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The Borden Era and the First World War, 1911-1920
Pre-lecture Chat
-Weds is the film for the analysis assignment, the questions for the assignment will be
posted tonight
-The assignment is due in lecture on January the 31st
-Jonathan will be the one marking them, and you must indicate to receive extra feedback
and remarks
-Conscription crisis of 1917, which split the country. This topic is different from other topics
covered, lots of trauma and life was never same again after the war. This was a needless
war because it was a traditional clash of empires that seek economic gain. We remember
this as a fight for Canadian democracy and the birth of its nation, but its more of a sugar
coat on something thats really serves no other purpose.
Sir Robert Borden (1854-1937)***
-Beats Laurier after 10 years of his rule
-Appealing figure as he was a hardworking, intelligent and successful who grew up on a
-Was a teacher and then trained in law and was then prosperous and felt that it was a duty
to give back and join politics, but he never loved politics
Intelligent, successful, hardworking Nova Scotian Laywer
-Not a good speaker, no good personal relations with colleages, but best man by sonservative
party in 1901
Conservative Party leader, 1901-20
-No saavy way of running leader, was very straight forward
-If they did it another way, then he would resign. People never replaced him because they
though highly of him
-People thought he was really good looking, he looks like an Egyptian god. Was his
greatest strength
PM of Canada, 1911-20
-Summer 1914, he was not ready for the war was at moscoca on vacation
Outbreak of the First World War, July 1914
Triple Aliiance
-Germany, Italy (chose to be against this war when it started), Empire of AH, and Ottoman
empire replaced Italy

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Triple Entente
-Britiain, France, Russia
-Governed by Tazr (Russia, authoritarian), most strict and governed in the world
-Thus Russia is not really like a fight for freedom
Assasination of Franz Ferdinand (of France?)
***Austrian Archduke Franz Franz***
-killed by Serbian nationalist
-He was bombed on the car, but it was missed but he went on anyways
-Heir of AH empire
-AH made a ultimatum for Serbia in retaliation
-AH knew that they had support for Germany
-France supported Russia and France was contracted with Britain
Germany’s Schlieffen Plan
-They had a battle plan that made war inevitable
-Named after german chief
-Made plan against France in the west and Russia in the east
-Made to crush France in a couple of weeks, and after they were conquered they would turn
around and crush Russians because they were slow at gathering their forces
-Did not want to get involved on 2 fronts, so they decided to do this one at a time
-If Germany would be war with Russia, they would attack France first
-War broek out in July 1914
Canada at the start of the war
***Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of the Canadian Militia***
Autocratic Entry in the war
-Did not know aobut assassination and did not affect them
-Because Britain went to war, Canada went to the war because they were a British colony
-Most of Canada would probably have agreed to go to war because it did not happen for a
long time (people thought it was necessary now and then) and because most of Canada was
English, but there were grumbles in Quebec
-Borden noted in his diary in Ottawa, it was always matter of fact (today was hot)
-Even Ghandi supported the war (was an indian lawyer at the time) and thought Indians
should join
-Borden was English-canadian
‘Ready, Aye, Ready
-“When the call comes….ready, aye, ready

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Over by Christmas
-Thought itd be a short war, and Canadian volunteers thought itd be too late and itd be over
by the time they got there
Voluntary Enlistment
-Over 30k, but only requested 25k
-All voluntary
-Called Expeditionary force
Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
-Optimism adventure, and an adventure for young men to join
-Sam Hughes organized this expedition
-The posters usually were targeted at certain ethnic groups
-Eventually the posters became more bleak and tried to shame men into joining This is
your flag (Birtish flag, no Canadian flag at the time)fight for it and [Birtish poster]
Daddy, what did YOU do in the great War?
-As the war progressed, things became progressively worse even for the ads Remember we
must feed daddy too
-American poster, with a large ape brute with Kultur on a bloody club
Pictures of Recruits
-Billy Bishop, flying ace***
-Anonymous recruits (3 of them) of 1914***
-If you tried to walk in and too young go back outside and try again they would come
backa dn lie saying their 18
-Round 15 years old
The Western Front, 1914-1918
***Battlefield at the Somme, 1916*** <- No mans land
-White preferred, 18, 5.3 feet tall
-French Canadians werent welcome, but a lot of them signed up anyways
-1 year or longer (but not a lot believed it)
-$1.10 a day, carried a pack of shovel, ammo, rifle about 80 pounds
-18-35 years old
Trench Warfare
-Military armware evolved well beyond the last major war of American civil war
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