Class Notes (922,767)
CA (542,981)
UTSC (32,983)
History (740)
HISB41H3 (45)
Lecture

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8 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HISB41H3
Professor
C Pennington

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Lecture 3 Jan 24-11
Wednesday Jan 26 film @ sy, film analysis due Monday Jan 31
The Borden Era and the First World War, 1911-1920
Sir Robert Borden (1854-1937)
-Election of 1911, defeats Laurier
-Intelligent, successful, hardworking Nova Scotian lawyer
-Well regarded by the conservative party - Conservative party leader, 1901-20
-Did not govern by consensus
-Prime Minister of Canada 1911-20 – unprepared for the outbreak of war in 1914
-Never really liked politics, did it because he felt obligated – not particularly good at it
Outbreak of the First World War, July 1914
-Triple alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
-Triple entente: France, Britain, Russia (governed by Czar)
-Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary – killed by
Serbian nationalist
oUltimatum to Serbia, ordered them to surrender their sovereignty to them
oCaved into ultimatum but wanted to spread and expand, backed up by Germany –
had a big brother in Russia (had alliance with France)
oIf Russia declares war on A-H, France would be dragged into the war as well as
Britain (alliance with France)
-Germany’s Schlieffen Plan
oPrepared Germany for war in two different fronts: France in west, Russia in east
oUse all their forces to crush into France in a week, then meet the Russians
(notoriously slow spreading their arms force out)
oContinue to inch towards war
Canada at the start of the war
-Canada had nothing to do with the war, not affected by the assassination of Franz
Ferdinand
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Lecture 3 Jan 24-11
-Automatic entry in the war – committed to fight because of British empire
-Little opposition in Canada to join the war, except for Quebec
-Laurier, leader of the opposition, to support the government fully in war
o‘ready, aye, ready’ - Laurier
-over by Christmas - Anticipated for it to be a short war
-Voluntary enlistment
oAsked for 25,000 soldiers
oNot required to join
oOver 30,000 soldiers joined, voluntary
-Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF)
-Posters became more serious as war went on
-Billy Bishop, famous Canadian for shooting down numerous German planes
-Common for underage soldiers fighting in war
The Western Front, 1914-18
-To sign up you had to be 5’ 3” tall, white, 18-45 years old and male – “white mans war”
signed up for one year, whenever war ended and made a $1.10 per day – had to be able to
carry a pack of 80 lbs (weapons etc)
-Trench warfare
oMilitary hardware had evolved
oInvention of the machine gun in the late 19th century
oGeneral Douglas Hay believed it was an overrated weapon
oMixed of modern technology + old tactics = casualties
oBuilt trenches to protect their men, across Belgium to France
oGerman occupied high ground, spent more money on fortifying their trenches
ono mans land”
oNo helmets until the early 1916
oTrenches were always cold and wet, 10 to 12 ft deep
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Lecture 3 Jan 24-11
o3 sets of trenches: front line (expose to most danger, safe from sniper fire from
other side but vulnerable to shelling, heavy explosive artillery) half of the
Canadian soldiers died from shelling, middle line and the furthest one (get leave
before having to get back to front line – rotation
oHuman remains everywhere – rats that living in trenches grew as big as rats and
ate the dead soldiers body
oOnly one uniform to wear
oTrench foot and mouth – wearing away of the skin from being soaked constantly
-Ypres (in Belgium), 1915
oCanadian soldiers arrived as reinforcement
oArrived at the time of gas attacks
oGreenish cloud of gas 15ft high, crept slowly towards the Canadian soldiers
without knowing – chlorine gas, burned someone from inside out
Urinate into cloth and put to their face to prevent the chlorine gas
oCanadian soldiers remained at the front line even though being exposed to the
chlorine gas
o10,000 Canadians at Ypres, 2,000 died, 3,000 were wounded
-The Somme, 1916
oMassive British offensive against German line July 1916
o15,000 British soldiers killed on wounded on the first day – spent days shelling
the German line
oCanadians part of battle in September of 1916
oBoth sides suffered at the Somme, with very little ground taken. 100,000+ of
casualties just to gain some ground
-Passchendaele, 1917
oFought in October 1917
oCanadians well aware of the war, enlistment at home had dropped
oRemembered primarily for the flood/rain
o16,000 Canadians killed or wounded all for the advance of several km
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 3 Jan 24-11 Wednesday Jan 26 film @ sy, film analysis due Monday Jan 31 The Borden Era and the First World War, 1911-1920 Sir Robert Borden (1854-1937) - Election of 1911, defeats Laurier - Intelligent, successful, hardworking Nova Scotian lawyer - Well regarded by the conservative party - Conservative party leader, 1901-20 - Did not govern by consensus - Prime Minister of Canada 1911-20 unprepared for the outbreak of war in 1914 - Never really liked politics, did it because he felt obligated not particularly good at it Outbreak of the First World War, July 1914 - Triple alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy - Triple entente: France, Britain, Russia (governed by Czar) - Assassination of Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary killed by Serbian nationalist o Ultimatum to Serbia, ordered them to surrender their sovereignty to them o Caved into ultimatum but wanted to spread and expand, backed up by Germany had a big brother in Russia (had alliance with France) o If Russia declares war on A-H, France would be dragged into the war as well as Britain (alliance with France) - Germanys Schlieffen Plan o Prepared Germany for war in two different fronts: France in west, Russia in east o Use all their forces to crush into France in a week, then meet the Russians (notoriously slow spreading their arms force out) o Continue to inch towards war Canada at the start of the war - Canada had nothing to do with the war, not affected by the assassination of Franz Ferdinand www.notesolution.com
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