GASB58- Class 5.docx

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22 Apr 2012
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GASB58 Class 5 February 9, 2012
TAIPING REBELLION, 2ND OPIUM WAR, SELF-STRENGTHENING MOVEMENT, SINO-JAPANESE WAR
TAIPING REBELLION [1850-1864]
- Simultaneous movement in Korea and other parts of the colonial world
- One factor that lead to the Taiping Rebellion would be the aftermath of the 1st opium war
- Leader: Hong Xiuquan 洪秀全had a dream about God and Jesus Christ, believed that he was the brother of
Jesus Christ, believed that he should overthrow the demons (the Manchus)
- Jan 11, 1851: Uprising in Jintian 金田 of Guangxi province, Founded Taiping Tianguo (Heavenly Kingdom of
Great Peace)
- Sept. 1851: Captured Yong’an and established a collective leadership and military organization
- April 1852: Marched North in Dec 1852, entered the City of Yuezhou 越州; captured Hankou 汉口 in Dec.
1852 and Wuchang 武昌 in Jan 1853; Anqing 安庆 in Feb 1853, and Nanjing 南京 in March 1853. Made the
capital of the Taiping Kingdom. The forces amounted to 2 Million
- May 1853 and 1856: Won a series of victories and took control of a huge chunk of Jiangsu 江苏, Anhui 安徽,
Henan 河南, Shanxi 山西, Zhili 直隶, Hubei 湖北, Hunan 湖南, Jiangxi 江西. In Sept. 1853, reached almost
Beijing, and in 1856, defeated the Qing troops on both sides of the Yangzi river.
- With help of Han Chinese scholar officials helped Qin forces to develop more effective strategies
(questionable whether Qing could have won if Han Chinese officials didn’t help)
- Later Stage, 1856-1864: internal power struggle, and setbacks
Later Stage
- Power struggle: Easter King Yang Xiuqing 杨秀清, Northern King Wei Changhui 韦昌辉, Flying King Shi
Dakai 石达开
- Revival in 1857-62: Loyalty King Li Xiucheng 李秀成, Bravery King Chen Yucheng 陈玉成, Shield King
Hong Rengan 仁玕 (1859)
- Last Stage: 1862-64: July 1864, fall of Nanjing
Reasons for Defeat
- Split of leadership
- Western assistance in the suppression (Ever Victorious Army)
- Failed to exploit the Anti-Manchu sentiments
- Estranged the Han Chinese Confucian scholars and gentrylocal militia and mercenary (Zeng Guofan 曾国藩
Hunan (Xiang) Army/ Li Hongzhang’s 李鸿章 Anhui (Huai) army)
- No effective coordination with other rebel forces (Nian rebels 捻军 in the North, and the Red Turbans in the
South)
Assessment of its Historical Impact
- Some radical proposals like Puritan asceticismprohibited prostitution, gambling, use of opium and alcohol
and restrained sexual relations
- Inspired by Christian doctrines but with a Chinese twist
- Hailed as ―revolutionary‖ in their land reform and social structure
- Huge cost of resources and human lives (20-30 Million)
HONG XIUQUAN 洪秀全 [1814-1864]
- Leader
- 1836: Good Words for Exhorting the Age
- 1837: Sick and Delirium
- 1843: Realization
- 1844-50 Preaching with Feng Yunshan in Guangxi and Guangdong, founding the Society of God Worshippers
SECOND OPIUM WAR (1856-1860)
Background
- Post 1842 Sino-British Relations: disputes, Opium trade, access to Canton
- Unsatisfactory British Trade with China
- Treaty Revision
The Arrow Incident Oct.1856
- A Chinese operated/owned boat, involved in piracy, with a British vagabond as the nominal captain, registered
in HK but expired in Sept.
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