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lecture 1

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futurism - aggressiveness within art
- vital need for change
- technology, scientific
- destabilizing the individual
Nieche - needed to understand the world
de Bon - people's behaviour shows a loss of self, following
- 1905 Japan beat Russia
- holding onto colonies - fundamental cause of WWI
- scientific instability
World War I
mobilized 65 million soldiers - 37.5 million casualties (8.5 million killed, remaining injured
or missing)
- 900 people a day, for four years
War as a generative force
- destroys four (possibly five) empires - Ottoman, Austria-Hungarian, Russian,
German -- British
- utility of economic planning (for a war economy to mobilize large numbers of
- increased demands for political and social rights/justice, independence (women's
rights: 1917 Russia, partial rights Britain 1918, Germany & Hungary 1918)
- contributed significantly to economic depression - war reparations after WWI
- "hollow men" (600 000 soldiers returning from war in Germany shell shocked)
kept marching - dysfunction as a key motif of interwar period; poisoning of the political
atmosphere [no change despite the war]
originated from: communism, fascism, national socialism, minority as a permanent
key themes
1. catastrophe and destruction - events all lead to the next war
Century of the refugee
- ideological disagreement
- wrong 'type' of person
Hannah Arendt - statelessness as the newest mass phenomenon in contemporary history
- displacement, 1923 Greece and Turkey, for countries to become more
- 30 million displaced persons in Europe
2. nationalism and the nation state
- nation & human rights
- ultimate goal: the nation is the main source of sovereignty
central tenet: the boundaries of the state must correspond to those of the nation
invented traditions - many national identities critical to 20th century politics were
- standards, stability
destructive twinning of nationality and citizenship
- established rules, goals, standards - made citizens
- assimilation
- kin community - if you're not born in Germany, you are not a 'citizen'
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