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lecture 2

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L02 - Imperialism
What is imperialism?
- fundamental extension/change
- Edward Sied - Orientalism - relationship with the "Other"
- Benedict Anderson - if you want to look at where the birth of nationalism -- look at
colonies (when people leave their homes to colonies, they only exist as a national subject)
-- underclasses experience a position of power where they are unable to experience in the
sphere of a nation state
* key dynamics of change
* America's informal empire
* immense lost of influence
- highest stage of capitalism
- colonialism: earlier period, involves the use of colonists and placing them on territory
- imperialists: does not have to involve the use of institutions, administering personnel on
the ground (tariffs, customs); can be formal/informal process
European expansion, 1880 - 1914
- national expansion on the continent: Russia and Austria-Hungary
- scramble for Africa: the Berlin Conference (1884 - 1885), Fashoda (1898), Boer War (1899
- 1902)
- Belgium -- Congo
- Great Britain, 4 million sq miles of territory, 66 million people
- France, 3 million sq miles 26 million people
- Germany, 13 million people
- continental dynamic
Why Empire, or what's "new" about the "new imperialism"?
- reasons for Empire: 1, cultural; 2, economic; 3, political
- ideology of Empire: racism and Social Darwinism
- territory in the Balkans shift back and forth (form and break up)
- Great Powers do not want Russia to get near Constantinople (control over the straits over
Black Sea)
- Bismarck goes into war with France and captures territory of Alsace-Lorraine (most
industrialized/rich regions)
- Italy feels as if it's being pushed up as Tunisia is invaded by France (Meditarranean is
becoming 'stolen')
- British in Egypt (Suez canal, built by the French, for profit generating) - 1875 becomes a
- 1882 British enters Egypt
- Belgium acquires Congo - Henry Stanley (Congo River, and the Niger)
-- establish treaty to only trade
-- opens up Central Africa
- British took the cape - most important part to get to India
Berlin Conference - 1884 - 1885
- Bismarck does not care for colonies at all, only for Europe
- fought 4 wars
- only maintaining what he had in Europe
- Bismarck expands on where colonies were already established to frustrate the rest of the
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