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2 Nov 2010
Fashoda crisis/affair - divides Africa between the British and the French
- informal agreement that they won't poach on each other's territory
- expands
World War One - Political and Social Revolution
- the experience that makes Europe European
1. why did war break out in July 1914
- short term causes: assassination in Sarajevo
- longer term causes: "Entangling Alliances", nationalism and national rivalries, cultural
anticipation for war
2. the course of war: how did a war that was supposed to last four months last four years ?
- Schlieffen Plan and the Battle of the Marne
- trench warfare: Verdun and the Battle of the Somme (1916)
- 1917 - a pivotal year 1. Mutinies
2. exit of Russia
3. entry of the United States
3. what was the impact of the war on the 20th century?
- Treaty of Versailles: "mutilated peace" and the "stab in the back"
- total war - mobilization of the home front, extension of state planning, militarization of
- invention of the minority
- cultural legacy of trauma and uncertainty
- July 28, 1914 Gavrilo Princip (member of the Black Hand - extreme nationalist
organization, to unify Serbs under the governance of their own, pan-Serbism) -- killed
- uncertain borders - between late 1870s to 1913, borders are constantly changing
- nationalism - pan-Serb & national prestige (great rivalries)
Æ power politics, competition
- entangling system of alliances
- Fashoda (tentative agreement) helps divide up Africa - eases tensions between Britain and
France (traditional enemy - fought for many years in many events)
-- when people thought who was most likely to go to war, it would be Britain and France
- "Entente Cordiale" arises after Boer War 1904
- Britain realizes that no one ever 'backs up' Britain
- allies with France rather than Germany
- more threatening for a part of the country to separate compared to a separate country
wanting independence
- Kaiser of Germany Wilhelm II - vain and had no idea what he was doing
- 1898 Naval arms race (to challenge Britain)
- Germany/France - enemies -- Bismarck recommends that France move into Tunisia Æ
aggravates Italy (pushes Italy to Austria-Hungary to form alliance)
- allies with those who offers the most (territory)
- Encirclement ["Lebensraum" - living space
- "Mittel Europa" middle European zone (needs to push Russia eastwards)
- "Mittel Afrika" (strip of land in Africa that can be its own monopolistic
area)] Æ physically and always isolated [Weltpolitik - world politics]
- Europe urbanizes, industrializes extremely quickly (second Industrial Revolution)
- needs a place in the world to recognize them - "place in the sun"
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