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Lecture

lecture 5

5 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Yates

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orientation of the Schlieffen plan - move around forts, not Maginot line
Weimar Republic, cultural and political turmoil
The end of war and its legacy for 20th century politics:
total war - mobilization of the home front, extension of state planning, militarization of
politics
cultural legacy of trauma and uncertainty
The Paris Peace Settlement
Wilson's Fourteen Points
redrawing the map of Europe and institutionalizing minorities
Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919
Weimar - a doomed republic?
'Stab in the Back' and a divided political culture
Tensions of modernization: Cities and the New Woman
Foreign policy and the "Finesse" - the Stresemann Era
- Weimar Republic 1919
- several countries sending out feelers for peace
- compromise peace - without annexation, put everything back together
- Austria-Hungary started sending out feelers for peace - destroyed legitimacy
- Russia's opt out of war - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - March 3 1919 - harsh conditions
- WWI was an unpopular conflict that made Russians lose almost 2 million men
- not feasible for power to continue in the war
- Lenin's continued promise to get Russia out of the war made him popular in his movement
- Eastern Front - Russia gets pushed back (loses a large amount of territory) - 1921 civil war
- will get parts of it back
- Germans able to redirect attention back to Western front
- under General Ludendorff (all out attack that would finish Western front, successive
attacks on the Marne - hammer British/France drive open gap and go through to Paris)
- left too many forces within Eastern front
- underestimated material/psychological American boom gave to British (2 million
troops)
- Allies opened hole in overextended German line - forced back towards its frontier
- wanted compromise peace (but German forces are on French/Belgian territory - not in a
position to compromise)
- 'undefeated German army' - never pushed back to own territory
- September 1918 Ludendorff announced victory only possible (position no longer
defensible) assuming for peace
- peace = call for political changes
- deal with Woodrow Wilson - most important Ally - idealistic view in war
- need political change/reform if wanted to negotiate
- new chancellor - Prince Max von Baden
1. chancellor responsible for the Riechstag rather than Kaiser
2. Three Class Voting system (representation proportional to size)
- further reforms were also pushed from below (people in the military)
- October 29 1918 amongst sailors in Keil - port in Baltic adjusted for last effort
- mutiny formed sailors councils modelled under Soviet example
- Ludendorff says no point in fighting until the end
www.notesolution.com
- coup in Bulgaria
- November 9 Berlin workers demonstrate - outpouring desire for peace
- Bulgaria September 29 1918 - Austria-Hungary November 4 1918
- encourage nationalistic missions
Legacies of the War
- France lost half of their men between 1914 - 1918
- Germany 1/5 of the population served in the army (13 million)
social impact of the total war
- complete mobilization of all resources and rearrangement of all domestic production
directed to the war effort
- civilian and combat - home front and war front
- social planning and immense extension of state powers, provisioning/managing
production
- German Æ enforced labour system
- women and children were taken, deported to Germany for war efforts
- normalize the role of government in economic planning (liberalism) - production or
consumption is detrimental
- Lloyd George 1916 - new collectivism (system of planning politics away from liberalism -
increased taxes to fund war efforts, borrowed more)
- didn't have to be at the Marne to experience what this war meant (funerals for soldiers
back at home)
- female employees 70 000 to 500 000 from beginning of war to end
- experience for women & new expectations to what they could/should do
- however bread lines, ammunitions factory = not liberating
- women pushed out of the work force quickly after men return
- laws against 'double earner' - male relative + woman not allowed
- long-lasting impact: brutalization of politics
- interwar period = militarized, violent politics
- The Great War has not ended, it is a prelude of a brutal warmed conflict and it is
the beginning of _____________
- Russian - militarization of revolution - way civil society was mobilized in Russia =
when people got to participate in politics
- engagement of political life can be assumed to be a war effort
- politics of cultural despair - uniquely violent/disturbing
- Freud - impact of trenches/home front - libedo and aggression drive
- people are 'fundamentally bad' - designed to do this
- costs of civilization: universal loss/grievance, loss of faith/hope, for progress
- the more society advances, the more demands/alienated
- one day advance so much that we will not grieve - but will be insane
Paris Peace settlement
- Wilson held out as hero, crowds want to meet Wilson
- nationalistic policy
- confrontation of European Arena Association
- invention of the Minority/nationality as a political problem
- Russia - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- East Prussia separated/isolated from main Germany
- Treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and of Trainon broke up Austria-Hungary
- Ottoman Empire (lost most of its land, only a little in Europe)
www.notesolution.com

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Description
orientation of the Schlieffen plan - move around forts, not Maginot line Weimar Republic, cultural and political turmoil The end of war and its legacy for 20thcentury politics: total war - mobilization of the home front, extension of state planning, militarization of politics cultural legacy of trauma and uncertainty The Paris Peace Settlement Wilsons Fourteen Points redrawing the map of Europe and institutionalizing minorities Treaty of Versailles, 28 June 1919 Weimar - a doomed republic? Stab in the Back and a divided political culture Tensions of modernization: Cities and the New Woman Foreign policy and the Finesse - the Stresemann Era - Weimar Republic 1919 - several countries sending out feelers for peace - compromise peace - without annexation, put everything back together - Austria-Hungary started sending out feelers for peace - destroyed legitimacy - Russias opt out of war - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - March 3 1919 - harsh conditions - WWI was an unpopular conflict that made Russians lose almost 2 million men - not feasible for power to continue in the war - Lenins continued promise to get Russia out of the war made him popular in his movement - Eastern Front - Russia gets pushed back (loses a large amount of territory) - 1921 civil war - will get parts of it back - Germans able to redirect attention back to Western front - under General Ludendorff (all out attack that would finish Western front, successive attacks on the Marne - hammer BritishFrance drive open gap and go through to Paris) - left too many forces within Eastern front - underestimated materialpsychological American boom gave to British (2 million troops) - Allies opened hole in overextended German line - forced back towards its frontier - wanted compromise peace (but German forces are on FrenchBelgian territory - not in a position to compromise) - undefeated German army - never pushed back to own territory - September 1918 Ludendorff announced victory only possible (position no longer defensible) assuming for peace - peace = call for political changes - deal with Woodrow Wilson - most important Ally - idealistic view in war - need political changereform if wanted to negotiate - new chancellor - Prince Max von Baden 1. chancellor responsible for the Riechstag rather than Kaiser 2. Three Class Voting system (representation proportional to size) - further reforms were also pushed from below (people in the military) - October 29 1918 amongst sailors in Keil - port in Baltic adjusted for last effort - mutiny formed sailors councils modelled under Soviet example - Ludendorff says no point in fighting until the end www.notesolution.com
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