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2 Nov 2010
Democracy of the Masses
1. "What a disappointment the 20th century has been" (Winston Churchill, 1922)
- the interwar desertion of liberal democracy and the 'problem' of the mass politics
2. Social and economic conditions
- challenges of postwar reconstruction
- the Great Depression and its solutions - attraction of the Soviet example
3. Fascisms and Popular Fronts
- Comintern's "class against class" policy and the European Left
- Popular Front success?: France (1934-1940)
- Popular Front failure?: Spain (1931-1939)
- parliamentary regimes set up in new constitutions
- reluctance in giving power to an authority (authoritarianism) - modeled on French system
(Presidents and Prime Ministers)
- 14 currencies in 1914 - 27 in 1917 - emerging currencies/countries
- democracy seems to be normal state of affairs - no question to what the states would look
- looking for protection and support from the League of Nations (minority treaties)
- countries looking for inspirations from the League
- USA, Russia, Germany does not endorse the League of Nations (Germany and Russia will
- Russia little will to support policies/economic reconstruction of Europe - damaged
- Social democracy, fascism, ___________
- dictatorship spreading - Bolshevik turned into one-party, Hungary - Horthey, Fascism in
Italy, Portugal 1926 military coup
- Primo de Rivera (Spanish), Pilskuski (Poland 1926)
- all countries with exception of France, Britain is overruled by some type of dictatorship
- mass politics and the rise of liberal democracy
- the "masses" (general workers, women, minorities) are increasingly asking for and
to be involved with the political process, spread of the constitutional ___________
- new ways of globalizing masses that became interval for politics
-- political parties become machines - paramilitary groups with proportional
-- flowering of political powers based on ability to mobilize the masses
- problems become magnified
- proportional representation = fractions - diverge of political responsibilities/ideologies
- not a unified and collective goal
- parliament highlights divisions - favour or disagree - the "average" no great dynamic
- not "natural leaders of society"
- leaders turn to the right to maintain natural hierarchies
- thought authoritarian were dynamic
Berdyaev - disillusionment, yearning of collective identity, rushing into some type of
societal group that allows them to be more than mere individuals
- places capitalism within
- dehumanizes the person - treats man as __________
The Great Depression 1929 - 1936
- dates generally vary as there are different markers for when the depression started
- economic conditions falling within Britain before 1929
- demobilization - economic dislocation, unemployment, inflation
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