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Lecture 8

lecture 8 - "An Inconvenient Truth" screening questions


Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Yates
Lecture
8

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Fascism and Nazism: Origins, Methods, and Appeal
1. extreme authoritarianism: Fascism, totalitarianism, Nazism
- varieties of Fascism
- totalitarianism and "total claims" of the state
2. inventing Fascism: Italy
- agrarian Fascism and the rise of Mussolini
- Fascism in power: spectacle, daily life, and Empire
3. Germany and the Nazi experiment
- the Sonderweg or Germany's 'special path'
- Nazi seizure of power? voting support and Weimar instability
- propaganda and the politics of consent
- floods of new liberal constitutions in the name of people (modelled off of the French) with
short life spans
- Nazism can be considered as an extreme form of Fascism (+ racist)
- totalitarianism supposed to describe the totalized political state
- Mussolini comes into power 1922
- why not seen as a direct threat to Britain and France
- Fascism opposite of Marxism Socialism (is right wing), denies democracy and ability of the
masses, pure technology cannot lead to Fascism/universal suffrage
- democracy = general consensus, nothing noble of that - Fascists wants holiness and
heroism
- anti-pacifist, anti-socialist, believes in classes in society, anti-liberal
1. anti-parliamentarian (whether parliament is an effective representative voice)
- just a division, lack of a national voice - only highlights differences (factional)
2. because of what liberalism does (liberalism establishes an individual as the basis
of all rights, divides, egotistic, lazy)
3. liberals divided the world (in Fascist understanding) into public (political - social,
economic) and private (where the government has no business in) arenas - which
people enter and leave
- Fascists don't think that there is a division between the public and private -
politics is everywhere
- better understood as a type of behaviour (Robert Paxton) and not as a way of life
- idea that you can't divide the state into public and private cells - everyone is unified in a
national collective (subsumed in a collective)
- Volksgemeinschaft = people's society
- described with explicitly racial terms
Spain - Falange
- Spain is an invisible entity universally - commitment
- no private
- idea that suffrage is unnatural
- organic vs. inorganic
- anti-capitalist (monopolies)
Totalitarianism
- Fascist and Communist = enemies - 'facing off' the Fascist threat
- a total identity between state and society (society recognizes itself and defines itself
completely in reference with the state - state holds legitimacy and sole reason of societal
lives)
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