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Lecture 9

lecture 9

Course Code

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L09 The Second World War
Making the Volksgemeinschaft - race and the Nazi regime
[national community to define and exclude various components of society]
- consent and coercion in daily life
Hitler's Foreign Policy, 1933-1939 [steps leading to the war]
- revising the Treaty of Versailles [most mobilizing political platforms]
- Lebensraum [conservative ideology of 'living space', encircled by enemies]
Appeasement, 1935-1939: the only logical course?
[diplomatic policy by Britain and France to respond to Germany's expansionist aims]
- Chamberlain and the 'climate of appeasement'
The Second World War and Nazi ideology
- colonizing Europe
- the Final Solution/Holocaust
Creating the Volkgemeinschaft - defining and excluding racial enemies
1933 - Jews are excluded from position in the civil service, teaching, national health service,
journalism, theatre and film
- boycotting of Jewish shops and businesses organized
- organized from the top, to make acts of violence look spontaneous (from below)
- quotas on Jews in universities and public high schools imposed
- law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring institutes sterilization of
individuals with various conditions assumed to be hereditary (such as physical deformity,
schizophrenia, alcoholism) -- sterilized up to 400 000
- murdered children under 3 with disabilities
- anything that made an individual look like that they don't contribute to the society
-- encourage Jews to emigrate from Germany
1935 - Nuremberg Laws: 'the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour'
bans new marriages between Aryans and Jews; 'the Reich Citizenship Law' strips Jews of
their German citizenship
- how to determine Jewish, 'mixed status' becomes complicated and invades personal life
- Aryan passports to prove that you are an Aryan in order to undertake basic aspects of
everyday life (marriage, work, ride railways) -- not issued by the state, has to make them up
themselves from post office tracing ancestry in racial categories
- progressive exclusion of Jews from shops [+ public violence Æ seclusion, don't go out,
cannot take the stress and commits suicide]
- by 1941, Jews have to wear the yellow Star of David - viewed to be internal enemies until
pointed out
1938 - November 9 Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass - organized by the NSDAP
(National Socialist or Nazi Party), over 1000 synagogues are burned and thousands of
Jewish shops destroyed - deportations of 20 000 to 30 000 Jews to concentration camps
- all Jewish children expelled from school
- Nazis assume control of Jewish-owned businesses [hand over]
1939 - Euthanasia campaign - murdering mentally and physically "deficient" hospital
inmates claims over 70 000 lives before halted in August 1941 by public outcry and Church
- outcry as they are 'Germans' but murder of Jewish do not occur at any point
- began with children testing the efficiency of the campaign
- from September, Jews are forbidden to own or listen to the radio
- Hitler administers a Public _______________ under Goebbels
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