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Lecture 10

lecture 10

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L10 - Reordering Europe, East and West - (perhaps) WWII as a social revolution
1. European devastation, 1945 - the impact and legacy of total war
- why was there no revolution in Europe after WWII as there was after WWI?
2. Political reordering Æ
- Wartime Allied Conferences: Teheran (1943), Yalta (February 1945), Potsdam (July 1945)
- the division of Germany and the hardening of Cold War alliances
3. Economic reordering Æ
- Marshall Plan (1947-1951)
- birth of the welfare state and the reorientation of state responsibilities
- the Economic road to European Union - European Coal and Steel Community, 1952
- one who wrote the script for the film was a previous political prisoner
- legacy of collaboration with Nazi Party
- anticipating demand, sending children to concentration camps
- Vichy syndrome - the memory of Vichy and its collaboration almost as a disease
- after 1950s Æ urbanization, decline of agriculture
- WWI had more territorial readjustment, debate with reparations, issues that define how
the WWI ended - what interwar period would look like
- does not have polarized political aspect - everything seems to be concentrated about life
and death/now or never
- Fascist troops helped out each other (Æ Spanish Civil War)
- increasing stability - two armed nuclear powers (USSR and USA)
- photo of Berlin - added more damage (to show power) and edited out arm (stolen from
others) -- mass rape of women in Germany
- East was genocide, use of ethnic cleansing (wartime policy)
- Soviet Union lost 11 million soldiers and 10 million civilians mobilized (1939-1945)
- accentuated/increasing capacity for machinery to create destruction to human body (gas,
barbed wire, machine gun)
- Cologne, Germany - bomber raids
- Firebombing of Drezton - single operation with 35 000 deaths
- 17 million combatants, 18-20 civilians lost within the war
- trummerfrawen ('rubble women') in Berlin - myth of women left to clear streets of rubble
- conditions were so bad that women volunteered for these jobs for extra rational tickets
- Berlin completely devastated after WWII - need to be rebuilt (at point zero)
- displaced persons (around 12 million, several refugee camps still operated until 1960s)
Æ forced out of land, Jewish refugees returning from the camps with homes taken over,
returning prisoners of war
- first choice: Palestine, second choice: _________ - want out of Europe no matter what
- all places that were ethnically German for Hitler to incorporate into the Reich expelled
- Poland depopulated for Germans to inhabit
- people know what would happen to them once Soviets get here, Germans expulsed and
into camps
- sufferers of Germans in WWII - happy to kick people out of their previous homes
- reappropriation vs. seizure/appropriation
- encouraged national self determination
- Gomulka must expel - countries are built on national lines
- total displaced reached 90 million, scale of displacements & deaths led to the Universal
Declaration of Human Rights and Geneva Convention in 1951
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- most of destruction occurred within East
- Cathedral -- these ruins are the shape of our time/Medieval Europe
- the more 'civilized' we become, the more mutually/self destructive people become
- civilized while being barbarians
- physical devastation + psychological trauma + cultural disillusionment
- "existence precedes essence" -- we make ourselves, based on pristine
- no meaning/soul within us and establish it
- seems pessimistic/hopeless/defeatus - overwhelmed but is optimistic, makes people
responsible for what they do (people responsible for acts)
- being man by constantly acting in the world, making decisions, choosing
- politics of collaboration vs. resistance in France
- les tondues = women accused of collaborating with German occupiers have their heads
publicly shaved
Æ "horizontal collaboration" - dragged out and shaved
- Marshall Phillippe Petain- becomes head of Vichy government and fights against Nazis to
save France from total occupation
- reforming society after WWII took up various punishments
- post-war purging - Italy, 1943-1946, 10-15 000 collaborators murdered
- popular vengence within Italy helped stifle any form of legal efforts to form - shaving
heads were general punishments
- in Germany, Nuremburg Trials - 22 Nazi war criminals
- gets to decide on who gets punished after WWII - happens across the board
- denazification - against collaborators, peter out - people want to forget (educational
programmes to remove prominent Nazis from positions of power)
- German civilians are made to watch films of death camps (propaganda imagery)
- Germans have not acknowledged their collective guilt
- black sheeps go into the magic machine and white lambs come out -- efforts to punish and
- small fries, not getting the big characters for reform to actually amount to social revolution
- Allied forces - rising cold war offer stability over apparatus
- State police force helped in
- people who were in the resistance would find themselves to be told what to do by police
- bureaucratic quagmire, dont' know how to get rid of so many people efficiently
- broader thought that Europe needed to be rebuilt after WWII - do not want to suffer
massive purging
- no unions/organizations erupted in Russia/Germany as it happened after WWI
- cult of ____________
- trenches replaced by resistance myth - made justifications not for continual violence
- 52% of dead were civilians - not professional soldiers
- people opted for stability rather than revolution (no calls for revolution)
- Stalin explicitly does not call for revolution abroad - 1943 dissolved the Comintern to
assure his allies that he was not seeking for local revolution
Æ communist parties are to engage in parliamentary coalitions and return to bourgeois
democratic forms of government
- dominant parties that emerge immediately after WWII become part of political movement
to push democratic parties (West Germany and France)
- traditionally conservative parties but war revolutionalized their outlook/role in Europe
- closer to social democratic model than to be working for social justice/equity
- should be more progressive and informist than the past
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