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Lecture 11

lecture 11


Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Yates
Lecture
11

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Reordering Empires at home and abroad
WWII as a social revolution
- the rise of the welfare state - the case of Britain
- the 'social market' - Germany's path to economic modernity
- the gulag and the 'smokestack economies' of Eastern Europe
Reimagining Europe as an economic entity
- the first steps towards unification
- European Coal and Steel Community (1952)
- European Community or Common Market (1957)
- decolonization and Europe's abandonment of a global political mission - the case of Algeria
Europe tries to reclaim politics? 1968 in Paris and Prague
- how the economy becomes a mobilizing force of which people could have pride in after
politics seemed to have gotten Europe embroiled in an absolutely devastating world conflict
Æ discredited
- economics became something Europe could be dependent on
- what happens to colonies once Europe abandon a political project
- 1968 a year of global revolution
- May in Paris - hope and onto the streets with workers - the degree of which
working class organizations and students coordinated their efforts to a mass general strike
Æ fundamentally nothing changed (wanted overhaul of bourgeois system)
- Prague - protesting for fundamental human rights and were brutally crushed by
invasion by leaders of Warsaw Pact
The Marshall Plan (1947-1951)
- end of June 1947
- US Secretary of State George C. Marshall designed an economic recovery plan for postwar
Europe that committed $12 billion in US loans
- amounted to very little aid - no more to 10-20% of capital formation in first years, after,
less than 10%
- less $29/person in Germany -- not incredibly significant amount of money
Æ any kind of money given into a developed economy is used more efficiently
- educated individuals + infrastructure made money productive
Æ money came with conditions
1. Marshall Plan aid was to be spent ON American goods
- initiated Americanization [the spread of American culture and values throughout
Europe and the globe quintessntially through consumerism]
- new markets, new values and life around acts of purchases
Æ part of a conscious imperialism on the part of United States
- naturally happened when a stronger country counters weak,
- instituted USD as reserves for Bretton Woods, American state department
injecting money into Europe to keep them away from falling into communism, racialized
concerns about what represented America (Jazz and association with poor Africans)
2. promised erasure of class conflicts
- neutral ground for national and regional identities
- in the growth of this consumer group, French elites afraid of the power of this
transatlantic transportation of goods
- reconfiguration of warfare state = organized for war Æ welfare state = all elements of
economy to be organized around the welfare of an individual
- widespread consensus on a more interventionist role of the state in the economy spread
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the ideal
- social democrats, communists Æ planning was appropriate
- after WWII, conservatives/traditional liberals all agree that state planning is an
appropriate way to manage a national economy
-- state responsible for providing social services & whatever else is needed to be productive
(education, old age pensions, low cost housing as a right, etc)
- the state exists to take careo f its citizens
- most developed in Britain, most associated with planning that came from the period of the
war (Beveridge Report, 1942)
- identified great social evils to be eliminated if society was essentially to be
politically secured
- conviction unless the market became a place that was not as terrifying/provided grounds
that the depression would not recur, political liberalism would not occur
* sickness, want
- minimum income as a right to wage to ensure minimum standard of living
- identifies key British liberties (freedom of worship, ___________, ________________, choice of
occupation, private property Æ freedom to spend personal income)
Æ new notion of citizenship based on consumption (consumer citizenship - becoming a part
of society by buying)
- Keynesian - believed in state responsibility to ensure sufficient purchasing power
- everyone has to have a minimum level so they can buy things
* every individual life should have the ideal of divine vocation (doing something not for his
own personal gain or his own family but for the community/others)
Æ individualism into egalitarian (no self interest)
- for the state to work, individuals hav eto find a way to consider that they are living in a
society that will require something from them at some point that does not benefit them
directly
Ludwid Erhard - finance minister Æ Chancellor [Economic Miracle]
- full employment by 1957, real wages tripled
- what the social market is
- economic progress becomes conflicting force in West Germany (if politics is not
discredited around the world, Germany would be damaged) - Britain in configuration of
economic + social market
- meant to respond to a deep ambivolence in the political party that would represent
(Christian Party Union)
- extreme individualism that haunts the free market -- rational individuals won't feel the
need to relate to each other as a society
- people have to believe in it
- economic policy = humanization of our environment in all spheres of life particularly in
the economic
- economics provided backbone of national society -- stronghold for international
organization as well
- division enables a new kind of European integration [no more European superpower]
- Belgium/Luxembourg/France/Italy countries to control coal and steel production (1952) -
inconceivable and impossible for war to re-rise
Æ overcome the type of rivalry between powers
- European Coal and Steel Community run by technicrats, no national feelings can get hurt
through envolvement
- small democratic group that concided under the
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