lecture 12

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Published on 2 Nov 2010
School
UTSC
Department
History
Course
HISB93H3
Professor
L12 - Challenges of Nationalism and Nationalities in Contemporary Europe
1989: the Final Act of the 1917 Revolution
- loss of legitimacy - the Soviet system as "panorama"
- end of the Soviet Empire
1991-1992: Nationalism overcome, Nationalism triumphant [stimultaneous breakdown of
USSR]
- end of the USSR
- Treaty of the Maastricht
- bloodshed in Yugoslavia
An European Identity - what for?
- immigrants and national identity in contemporary Europe
- crisis of identity - rise of multiculturalism on the European continent
- Eastern Europe full of satellite states
- two perspectives: fundamentally what occurred from 1989 to 1991 (fundamental loss of
legitimacy) and the rise of nationalism (ethnonationalism movements, particularly in USSR)
- competing perspectives whether nationalism would be important in the formation of
Europe
- ethno-federal structure of USSR formed a cracked up system (like a chocolate bar)
- flaring of ethnic tension and signing of documents overcoming tensions within an
European framework
- laicite = extreme dedication in separation for church and state (but not secularism and is
not religious) - kept at home
Æ discriminatory of religious beliefs (not allowed to wear crosses/Star of David)
- persistent fear from beginning to end of the fear of communism [fascism seen to be a
preferable alternative]
- immense power and prestige of Soviet power
- a system doomed to fail, failed, and something that is inherently/pathologically unstable
and probably not worth the fuss people went through
- Prague 1916 - demand for "Socialism with a human face" - Alexander inspired by
Æ 5 Warsaw Pact countries - use of force introduced the Brezhnev (Doctrine) 1964 under
Krus____'s fall
- nonperson = expelled from history in the Soviet context
- retreat from thaw and stagnation - anti-socialist degeneration (public calls for reform)
- Soviet Union & its military have the responsibility to 'save' turmoil and correct its state
- Brezhnev Æ continued public discourse focus on the response of a communist and
improving consumer goods
- promised the 9th FYP (increase goods to population, ownership rights to household
electronics)
= growth rates fell, but more slowly compared to Western -- lagged in 1980s
- decaying household situations (shortage of housing Æ communal apartment divided by
families), environmental damage increased human health (infant mortality, life expectancy),
alcoholism (chronics at 37%)
- dilemna - economic transition was necessary but hard to do without social and economic
dislocation -- created a working class (cannot be sacrificed)
- Margaret Thatcher 1979-1990, Prime Minister of Britain - reformed the economy by
sacrificing the working class (not seen to be controversial)
- entrepreneurship made more efficient, privatized
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- Soviet Union did not enjoy flexibility - Janos Kadar, Communist leader of Hungary 1956-
1988 made reforms - goulash communism [mixed market economy]
- not economically successful 1970s = severe recession around the world
- goulash captured ideologies of the West/around the world but not successful
- attempts to reform within the system while Tito had National Communist (mixed economy
similar to Ceausescu - systemization (involved nationwide scale of urban/cultural planning,
new housings to rationalize living space but destroyed old centre)
- Eastern European states ruled by "Little Stalins" - One party states with centralized top-
down power
- fundamentally, reality remained that the East was unable to beat the WEest in quality of
daily life and party had little general purpose due to inability
Æ everything was concerned about beating the West
- pessimism on all orders but especially among the middle classes
- as Stalin was going upon his vast ideal of collectivization, there was very little knowledge
of the USSR about what was going on outside the USSR
- by 1980 - 50% of population had shortwave radios to catch up on information
- no tourism to the West but a great number from East
- growing awareness of alternate models (extreme triumph in USSR & its system of
scientific research and technical profession -- convinced people that they had the capability
just not the capacity)
- recognition of the cap was growing - foreign development
- Party itself was failing to deliver its promises
Æ trade Union from Political Movement (1980) - Solidarity [formed on Lenin _______ in
Gdansk]
- electrician by trade - not an educated middle class
- main cause of protest against government increases of food prices, which led to the
formation of solidarity Æ protests, formed under marshall law and all farmers joined and
posted underground
- 1980, 3.1 million, 1984, 2.1 million
Æ most of affected were young
- faith in socialism was broken/evaporated by the 1970s-1980s
-- shows that people took socialism very seriously, wanted to throw out for it to live up to its
promises
- materials comfort that came with capital
- did not lose faith in ideas of the party while party ceases to have core purpose
- Charter 77, signed in 1977 calling on Czech government/society to live up to its
guarantees of human rights (constitution)
- what capacity there is for resistance in the Soviet system
- what the experience of domination is, what kind of violence is
- extreme psychological violence at the core of imperialism = only language colonizers
understand
- fundamentally - despite the depth of this violence, there is a very easy road to resistance
Æ panorama, part of the façade - symbols and outward gestures are how to survive the
Soviet system
Æ resistance to the system is to live in the truth
- to refuse to affirm the government's systematic deception & moral emptiness
- eradication of meaning in the centre of the project
- Gorbachev - what the problems of Soviet Union are [eulogizing - beginning to believe on
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Document Summary

L12 - challenges of nationalism and nationalities in contemporary europe. 1989: the final act of the 1917 revolution. Loss of legitimacy - the soviet system as panorama 1991-1992: nationalism overcome, nationalism triumphant [stimultaneous breakdown of. Immigrants and national identity in contemporary europe. Crisis of identity - rise of multiculturalism on the european continent. Two perspectives: fundamentally what occurred from 1989 to 1991 (fundamental loss of legitimacy) and the rise of nationalism (ethnonationalism movements, particularly in ussr) Competing perspectives whether nationalism would be important in the formation of. Ethno-federal structure of ussr formed a cracked up system (like a chocolate bar) Flaring of ethnic tension and signing of documents overcoming tensions within an. Laicite = extreme dedication in separation for church and state (but not secularism and is not religious) - kept at home.  discriminatory of religious beliefs (not allowed to wear crosses/star of david)