o Political unity of the Kievan state was ruled by descendents of Riurik.
The senior prince ruled in Kiev, when he died, the next most senior
brother took his place. (this worked as long as the brothers thought Kiev
was worth having)
Many princes began to see their own city state, not as a stepping stone, but
as a place to be developed and passed on to his children. (father to son
hereditary rather than between brothers)
Many of the brothers began to settle in their own cities and the state of
kievan rus became less and less a federation and rather became a number
of cities that fought petty fights.
Trade and defense was closely linked
By the middle of 12th century, the pressure from the nomads were stronger
and trade declined because defense became harder
Venicians began trading with the Byzantine Empire
x In the south, the major trade routes shifted to the south and started
moving to the west. Kiev started to become a minor trading partner
with the Byzantine Empire rather than a major one.
x In the north, the volume of trade decreased because there were
trade alternatives. The routes went through the Baltic Sea rather
than Black Sea. Therefore, trade that once went through Kiev
Nomads occupied north of the Black Sea.
x Slav settlers on the steppe experienced raids from the Nomads.
x Life in Kiev was becoming dangerous and the cost of defence
x Novgorod was protected due to its forest location and swampy
(natural protection) and had links to the Hanseatic League.
Novgorod began to rise.
x Kiev became a cushion to protect cities such as Volynia and
Galicia from Nomads
o The soils in these cities were good
o Galicia became the most powerful state in the federation
o Prince Roman took over in Volynia and united Galicia
o Land owning became important for the Nobility. The
Nobility began feuding with the princes for power.
(pattern of unity and separation between Volynia and
o The area of Moscow began to appear as stronger than Kiev.
o The northeast grew up with absolutistic traditions
o Some argue that there were great continuity