HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Summer 2010 Lecture Note

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24 Jul 2010
OCT 29
x The time of troubles ended with the expulsion of Poles out of Russia
x Jan 1613, a council of the land named Zemskii Sobor (non-JRY¶WLQVWLWXWLRQVLQZKLFK
boyars, service gentry, Cossacks and a few independent peasants met in Moscow to name a
new Tsar
x They excluded all foreign candidates (Sigusmand and his son) and they looked for a Russian
x They settled on Michael Romanov (16 year old son of Filaret)
x Michael was a compromise candidate but he appealed to a wide population as the Romanov
were popular amongst service gentry, common people, Cossacks and other military people
many times. There was even a song about Nikitev
x Michael was acceptable to the boyars because he was young, unhealthy and unclever
x His father was in a Polish prison so he was out of the way
x The boyars felt that they would be able to manage him easily
x Therefore, they did not put any constitutional limits to his power
x Another why Michael was acceptable was because he was the cousin of the last Tsar Fedor.
x His legitimacy rested on that relationship
x The new Romanov dynasty was established with absolute power
x Over the years, it developed those powers and retained them until 1905
x The 17th century saw the establishment of the institutions of an absolute state.
x Like most European countries, Russia was part of the age of absolutism
x France, Louis the 14th was the sole ruler
x The exception was England where there was a battle until a compromise was reached
between the crown and parliament
x There is a close relationship between pursuing foreign policy goals and domestic traditions
x The 17th century was a time of warfare for Russia. 1632-1634, war with Poland. 1654-67 was
with Poles and Swedes. End of century, Turks and Swedes again.
x It was a radical change for the way of war too. They changed from cavalry army into an
infantry army that was able to match their European enemies.
x These changes were very costly and this led to the broadening of tax
x If more taxes are collected, a larger administration is needed
x Beginning of 17th century, not much had changed from Ivan the Terrible
x This new government was very conservative
x The members of the government were committed the compromise of Michael
x Period of consensus in government so no innovation
x This government wanted to put Russia back to the period before time of troubles socially
x Filaret is released in 1619
x He returns to Moscow, and he is named patriarch of the Church
x The patriarch is given almost equal power of the Tsar. For example, he received foreign
x Filaret was the real leader of the government until he died in 1633
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