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Lecture

HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note


Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Wayne Dowler

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NOV 17
Raskol (Schism)
Zealots of Piety
Solovetskii
Razin
Eschatological
Apocalyptic
Avakum Æ Russian tradition Æ Fundamentalism
Nikon Æ Greek tradition Æ Theocracy
The State Æ Greek traditionÆ Secularism (Church subordinate to state)
x Second half of 17th century, the Great Schism and conflict between church and the state
x There was a tension between Russian state and their need to modernize and the urge to
preserve the old traditions
x This tension lay at the root of the church schism (raskol)
x Some believe that this was due to religious reasons
x Federick Ingles said that the church schism was a class struggle between elites and the poor
(the Old believers)
x LWZDVQ¶WUHDOO\HLWKHUUHDVRQV
x the schism was a violent rejection of social and cultural modernization and secularization
x there were very strong anti foreign elements in the schism
x the people who inspired reform tended to be outsiders (foreigners)
x many reformers in the church were Ukrainian monks
x WKHUHZHUHULRWVLQWKH¶VWKDWZHUHGLUHFWHGWRZDUGVIRreign merchants and artisans
x the schism was strongest where the time of troubles had the least affect because in those
areas, the people still enjoyed unbroken traditions (where they were not exposed to
foreigners)
x in the areas where time of troubles was strong, the people had become accustomed to change
x the schism was strongest in the north and the urals and beyond that in Siberia
x the church had gone through a spiritual and moral decline during the time of troubles
x WKLVFULVLVKDGEHHQJRLQJRQVLQFH¶s
x understanding that the Slavonic books were badly translated, priests were drunk and other
problems
x as a result, by the end of the time of troubles, little progress was made
x WKH\VHWRXWWRFRUUHFWWKHVHPLVWUDQVODWLRQVDOWKRXJKLWZDVQ¶WGRQHZHOODVWKe monks who
were supposed to correct it studied old Slavonic texts that had lots of mistakes as well
x there was problems with church services. Services had become extremely long and complex.
There were rituals that was supposed to said all together (polyphonic)
x most priests had learned the services through memorization, incapable of explaining what
they meant.
x This set off a strong purification movement in the church years before the schism occurred
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