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Lecture

HISB93H3 Professor Dowler Fall 2009 Lecture Note

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Department
History
Course Code
HISB93H3
Professor
Wayne Dowler

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NOV 26
Miloslavskii
Naryshkin
Fedor
Mestnichestvo
6WUHO¶WV\
Golitsyn
Nerchinsk
x %\WKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKH¶VWKHIRUFHVZKRVXSSRUWHGFKDQJHLQ0XVFRY\ZHUHEHFRPLQJ
much more prominent and outspoken in government circles
x 7KHWUDGLWLRQDOLVWKDGQ¶WJLven up yet
x Tsar Aleksei died in 1676
x He left behind him 3 sons, 2 by his first wife
x His first wife belonged to the Miloslavski (a prominent boyar family)
x The third son was from second wife who was from the Naryshkin (another important boyar
family)
x Fedor, was oldest son, but he was s a sickly man
x He made very little contribution to Russian history
x He abolished mestnichestvo (system that says that you could not serve under someone in the
bureaucracy that was below you in social class).
x Fedor died in 1682
x That left his brother, Ivan, as the next heir
x Since Ivan was older than Peter, the family argued that Ivan should take over
x Ivan was still a boy, but he was also mentally impaired
x He was not capable of ruling
x Peter, although younger, was very intelligent, robust
x 7KHSDWULDUFKRIWKH2UWKRGR[&KXUFKSXVKHG3HWHU¶VUHLJQRYHU,YDQ¶V
x The patriarchs brought the Milo and Nary in war
x This struggle happened in the capital city of Moscow
x 7KHVLGHWKDWZRXOGZLQZRXOGUHFHLYHWKHVXSSRUWIURPWKHVWHO¶WV\
x Not all, buWPDQ\RIWKHVWHO¶VW\ZHUH2OG%HOLHYHUV
x $WILUVWWKHPDMRULW\VXSSRUWHG3HWHU¶VFODLPEHFDXVHWKHSDWULDUFKKDGVSRNHQRXWIRU3HWHU
x ,YDQ¶VVLVWHU6RSKLDWRRNFKDUJHRIGLUHFWLQJWKH0LORVODVNLLVWUDWHJ\
x She began to spread rumours about the Nary
x On her side, she began to make rash promises about what would be granted if Ivan was
elected
x This strategy began to work
x There were riots
x Peter witnessed the death of his uncle
x 3HWHUYLHZHGWKHVWUHO¶VW\DVROGDQGFKDRWLF
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Description
NOV 26 Miloslavskii Naryshkin Fedor Mestnichestvo 6WUHO¶WV\ Golitsyn Nerchinsk x %\WKHEHJLQQLQJRIWKH¶VWKHIRUFHVZKRVXSSRUWHGFKDQJHLQ0XVFRY\ZHUHEHFRPLQJmuch more prominent and outspoken in government circles x 7KHWUDGLWLRQDOLVWKDGQ¶WJLven up yet x Tsar Aleksei died in 1676 x He left behind him 3 sons, 2 by his first wife x His first wife belonged to the Miloslavski (a prominent boyar family) x The third son was from second wife who was from the Naryshkin (another important boyar family) x Fedor, was oldest son, but he was s a sickly man x He made very little contribution to Russian history x He abolished mestnichestvo (system that says that you could not serve under someone in the bureaucracy that was below you in social class). x Fedor died in 1682 x That left his brother, Ivan, as the next heir x Since Ivan was older than Peter, the family argued that Ivan should take over x Ivan was still a boy, but he was also mentally impaired x He was not capable of ruling x Peter, although younger, was very intelligent, robust x 7KHSDWULDUFKRIWKH2UWKRGR[&KXUFKSXVKHG3HWHU¶VUHLJQRYHU,YDQ¶V x The patriarchs brought the Milo and Nary in war x This struggle happened in the capital city of Moscow x 7KHVLGHWKDWZRXOGZLQZRXOGUHFHLYHWKHVXSSRUWIURPWKHVWHO¶WV\ x Not all, buWPDQ\RIWKHVWHO¶VW\ZHUH2OG%HOLHYHUV x $WILUVWWKHP DMRULW\VXSSRUWHG3HWHU¶VFODLPEHFDXVHWKHSDWULDUFKKDGVSRNHQRXWIRU3HWHU x ,YDQ¶VVLVWHU6RSKLDWRRNFKDUJHRIGLUHFWLQJWKH0LORVODVNLLVWUDWHJ\ x She began to spread rumours about the Nary x On her side, she began to make rash promises about what would be granted if Ivan was elected x This strategy began to work x There were riots x Peter witnessed the death of his uncle x 3HWHUYLHZHGWKHVWUHO¶VW\DVROGDQGFKDRWLF www.notesolution.com x He wanted more order in Russia x The Nary had their supporters too x A compromise was necessary because it was impossible for either side to win x 1682, the Zemskii Sobor was called and it declared both Ivan and Peter to be co-rulers (performed their last function) x This proved to be a triumph for 0LOREHFDXVHWKH\SURFODLPHG6RSKLDDV,YDQ¶VUHJHQW x So Sophia was the first woman to rule since Olga x Under her rule, milo had the upper hand x Sophia was intelligent x She was quite well suited as the ruler x She was very energetic and active x Her sympathies lay with the reformers x She began to recruit from the nobility (those who supported the reform) x With the help from these people, she began to organize the prikazy x She rationalized the administrative structure of the country to make them more efficient x Her closest advisor was Prince Golitsyn x He was well-educated, a westernizer (he was one of the descendents from the Rurakid lines) x He dressed like a westerner, he was highly cultured, collected books and paintings x He was symbolic of the faction that wanted to get Russia into Europe x :LWKKLVVXSSRUW6RSKLDZDVDEOHWRIUHHKHUVHOIIURPWKHVWUHO¶WV\VXSSRUWHUV x $VDUHVXOWWKHVWUHO¶VW\EHF RPHVGLVVDWLVILHGZLWKKHUDQGDVHFRQGUHYROWKDSSHQV x Many people were executed x Sophia was not hostile to the Old Believers x She understood that persecuting the Old Believers only heightened their beliefs x She began to gear down their persecution. She tried to use toleration as a means of peace x Sophia began to reduce trade barriers within the empire to create free trade x She abolished all tariff blocks between Russia and Ukraine x This helped to create a single national market and encouraged trade ties between the centre and periphery of the country x Artisans in the cities were given greater freedom x Golitsyn did not approve serfdom. He believed that forced labour was less efficient than free labour x He wanted to abolish serfdom and to replace it with an annual head tax on the peasant x The service gentry strongly opposed this law x He had to settle for less severe prosecution of runaway serfs x He was very interested in developing the lands to the south and he wanted peasants to go into that area x In international affairs, Sophia took an interest in diplomacy and war x She confirmed a peace treaty with Sweden and Poland x She was trying to secure RuVVLD¶VERUGHUV x She also signed the treaty of Nerchinsk with China that settled the border between Russia and China and freed trade between the countries x The Crimean Tatar were still there and threatened the country x She wanted to get rid of them www.notesolution.com x She begins by signing a treaty with Poland, Austria and Venice x She promotes a war with Turkey and discovers that her allies abandon her x The war was a disaster x The losses in man power was huge x As a result of this, dissatisfaction with her began to spread in the army x As she became more confident, became more autocratic x Many Russians were uneasy with a woman on the throne x All of these things contributed to her unpopularity x The army revolted against Sophia x 7RSURWHFWKHUVHOIVKHFDOOHGRXWWRWKHVWUHO¶VW\ x At this stage3HWHUIHDULQJDWWDFNVIURPWKHVWUHO¶VW\IOHGWRDPRQDVWHU\RXWVLGHRI0RVFRZ x They began to call on all Russians to come to the aid of the rightful ruler x So unpopular was Sophia, by 1698, her support melted away x Peter ordered her to be incarcerated in the monestary x 1698, Sophia tried to stir up revolt on Peter x Uprising failed though x Peter executed the leaders of the revolt and forced Sophia to become a nun x 'XULQJ6RSKLD¶VUHLJQ3HWHUZDVEXV\JURZLQJXS x Sophia did not want him around the court, so Peter lived away from the court power x He was not that familiar with age old traditions of the court x He was interested in western technology x He immersed himself in practical knowledge x He sought out this technological knowledge in the foreign quarter x Peter learned to read and write but he had little formal education x Instead, he provided himself with practical education x He was interested in survey and ship building x He had a passion for military drill x In order to indulge this interest, he formed his own regiment for him when he was a boy x +LVUH JLPHQWVODWHUWXUQHGLQWRWKH*XDUG¶VUHJLPHQW x They formed much of his basis of power x 3HWHU¶VXSEULQJLQJDQGKLVKRUULILFH[SHULHQFHZLWKWKHVWUHO¶VW\WXUQHGKLPDJDLQVWmuscovite tradition x He made it one of his aims to create organization and order x His mother died in 1694 x He became the Tsar x He decided to advance his education and visited western Europe x He travelled to Holand and worked as a labourer in the shipyard x He went to England and studied their ship building practices x +HZHQWWR$XVWULDZKHUHKHOHDUQHGDERXWKLVVLVWHU¶VUHYROWDQGZHQWEDFNWR0RVFRZ x He brought with him machines and an entourage of western technologists and engineers x Peter set out to transform government and society www.notesolution.comNOV 26 Miloslavskii Naryshkin Fedor Mestnichestvo $970O98 Golitsyn Nerchinsk N 9K0-0JL33L3J419K0 89K0147.08ZK48:554790.K,3J0L3:8.4;Z070-0.42L3J much more prominent and outspoken in government circles N %K097,L9L43,OL89K,39JLven up yet N Tsar Aleksei died in 1676 N He left behind him 3 sons, 2 by his first wife N His first wife belonged to the Miloslavski (a prominent boyar family) N The third son was from second wife who was from the Naryshkin (another important boyar family) N Fedor, was oldest son, but he was s a sickly man N He made very little contribution to Russian history N He abolished mestnichestvo (system that says that you could not serve under someone in the bureaucracy that was below you in social class). N Fedor died in 1682 N That left his brother, Ivan, as the next heir N Since Ivan was older than Peter, the family argued that Ivan should take ove
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