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Lecture 8

HISC65 Lecture 8: HISC65-8 PRINT.docx

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Natalie Rothman

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Lecture 81
Change as Process
-1400’s prosperous republics w/ special relat’ w. diff. territories
partic. in Med. but there were several other states that had similar situation (over sea relations
but also civic state e.g. Genoa); no mainland positions at this time
-ethos: frugal polity constantly trying to defend itself
-1600: only remaining republic on it. peninsula (others part of other polit. structure, taken
over, or lost republican flavour)
-republicanism what does it mean in context of empire where vast majority are not taken
part in polit. process?
-1500 maps: Venice controlling two different kinds of territories
-maritime (only reached by boat, all those territories nearby V. even if not speaking
Venneto, Adriatic territories [Croatia, Slovenia, Dalmatia, Crete Cyprus])
*16th cent. cease to be V. or become even more under V. control
-terra ferma: on It. mainland, having diff. politic/relat. to V. state
*16th cent. in the wake of the battle of Agnadello, state becomes more involved w/ the
-econ. and cult. remunerations: elites of V. increasingly invest in agric./villas/mainland
extravagant lifestyle of euro. typifies V. elite
“Empire” as defined in the OED
-19th century empire definition doesn’t apply; accidently found there selves in a position where
they have acquired all these territories, wasn’t necessary goal
-Roman roots of empire: empire meant two things - auth. invested in official to rule in the
name of Rome/personalised auth. invest. sov. in individ., only later used to talk about territories
and pop’s in them
-late stage in Roman history that subjecthood/citizenship is granted to those in empire that
aren’t in Rome itself; gradual process of recog. people w/i polit. strucurte; uneven process still
maintains hiearch. understandings, some people belong more than others; nature of belonging
is granular
-single charact. of empire: ever greater distinction among people, granular distinction of
belonging/diff. hierarchies of subject hood w/ diff. rights and resp’s versus metro pole and
overseas territory dance, V. and other early modern examples of empires (Ottomans) this is
problematic; nothing separates Venice from all these other places; nature of empire doesn’t
depend on phys./geograph. dist. b/ rather gerituical diff.: differentiat. b/w different kinds of
territories where diff. laws are obtained, the distinct. b/w different kinds of populations and the
prod. of difference; not that people are born as different but there are legal regimes/policies that
prod. difference and often emph. the need to disting. b/w populations; trajectories open in one
place are different in others
Stato da mar; Stato da terra
-composite monarchy: diff. territories w/ diff. legal regimes; no unified laws among the unit that
constitutes the empire; may be under single ruler but diff. laws in diff. places
-fits but also diff. - V. was not a monarchy but rather mixed constitution: constitution is so
perfect b/c it combines republicanism, monarchy and oligarchy (myth); doge is figurehead by
denomination of senate and through authority of patrician, no equiv. b/w this and absolute power
like someone like Sultan
-V. empire has process w/ three diff. phases
-late second half of 14th cent. - sev. polit. arrangements put in place for V. ability to rapidly
expand maritime territory; 13th cent. has control of some maritime territories (redist. of Byz.
territories) but these territories are small not imp. strateg., accidental empire (not a plan to turn
into empire); prominent patrician families controlled certain territories but not well-orch. polit.
structure that we might think of delib. empire
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