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HISA04 - Week 9.docx

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William Nelson

HISA04 – Themes in World History 1 – Week 9 A Spice Garden on Mauritius Two Small places on the map: Isle de France (Mauritius) & Delft, Holland Why did the French spend so much time, effort and money to establish the colony of Why was a botanical garden central to their plans for the Isle de France? iClicker Question 1: Who were the dominant trading power in the 17 century world? Dutch Delft, Holland - Painting by Vermeer - Delft was not on the sea side, - The Dutch formed a company – East India Company? (VOC) o Brought together the chamber of commerce from the 6 largest cities together o The Center place for commerce VOC – The First Global Logo - A symbol that became very well known because of the prominence of the company - Symbol of early civilization The Dutch East India Company – Known as the VOC - Formed in 1602 to monopolize Asian trade - The world’s first large joint-stock company - Most powerful trading company in the 17 century world o Raised 10 times the capital of its English counterpart o At its peak it had 257 ships and 12 000 men employed o Between 1595 – 1795, it sent over a million men to Asia - A model for large-scale business enterprises that now dominate the global economy iClicker Question 2: Which was not one of the primary goods traded by the VOC? Indigo o The primary goods that the VOC traded were coffee, teak wood, spices and tea o Although the Dutch had a West India Company, they were not as prominent in the trades in the Americas o Spices were the greatest of their money making commodities The “Spice Islands” (Present day Indonesia, particularly Maluka Islands) - One of its success: monopolizing o Wiped out spices In all others parts, so they would be the only ones able to access these products Dutch Batavia (Now Jakarta, Indonesia) 1780 - When the Dutch had it, they set up a fortress to protect it o There were canals to move ships in and out, as well of protections o There were also walls all around the city VOC strategy - Wherever possible, VOC tried to o Establish a trade monopoly o Fix prices o Replace native population with Dutch planters Spice Monopolies - Nutmeg trade monopoly was first o They seized control the cluster of islands known as Banda o Most of the native population was killed, left to starve, or enslaved o They they destroyed all other places of nutmeg production - Clove was next (Maluka Islands), then pepper on Bantam o Dutch had to fight the English and Chinese o Ended up sharing the trade of pepper  Not successful in monopolizing Pepper The French desperately wanted some of the spice trade - Conceived a number of plans on how to get a share of the spice trade - They tried to establish trading posts in India but was driven out - They colonized some islands on the shore of the Indian Ocean o However their dreams were dashed by the Dutch Pierre Poivre - A figure of new variety because he wrote books about his journey - He was educated by Jesuits - He was going to become a Jesuit and was trained in a Jesuit school and was sent off to China Pierre Poivre’s Journeys - Lyons, Franceh - Paris (Trained by Jesuits) Mauritius - China (2 years in captivity) - Annam (Vietnam) - Captured by British while sailing to Isle de France - Dutch, Batavia, left by Brithish - Sailed to Isle de France through Pondicerry, India - Arrived on Isle de France again on 1747 - Paris (getting permission to establish spice garden) - Dutch Cape Colony ( Learning about the Dutch garden - Isle de France (Converted Pamplemouses gardens) Pierre Poivre and Spice Espionage - Espionage – Missions VOC Botanical Garden on Cape of Good Hope in Southern Africa (1630 – 1700s) - Pierre Poivre studied how the Dutch grew the spices o He actually stole some of the plants too - The Dutch were interested in how to grow the Spices too (Temperature) o Growing spices outside of Asia  Save on trading, seizing of ships and etc. - These gardens were formed so they could grow these exotic plants and bring them back to Europe On Isle de France, Pierre Poivre turned Pamplemousses garden into a spice garden - The Dutch germinated plants so they could not be grown again when traded o Therefore, Pierre Poivre stole live plants, in order to grow them - The French, were not able to bring these plants back to Europe because they couldn’t build enough greenhouses so they had to grow them in the tiny island Trade and the International Struggle for Supremacy - “Trade cannot be maintained without war, nor war without trade.” – Jan Pieterszoon Coen (A Director of the VOC) Trade and War and Trade War - Imperial conflicts were fought through trade and warfare - War is politics by other means - Trade was imperial politics by other means - Trade and war were often united in the waging of imperial struggles o War and violence were used to secure trade o Trade funded and enabled continued warfare Back to Delft: Hugo Grotius - The Case of the Santa Carina and the Foundations of International Law o The Dutch seized the Portuguese ship and they hired Hugo Grotius to find a lawful reason to explain the Portuguese why they stole the ship instead of the plain reason of “stealing” o The Spanish & allies (Portugeuse) blocked out the Dutch’s ships to reach the trading stations o Hugo Grotius established what is international law Grotius, The Law of the Seas, International Law - Hugo Grotius wrote Mare Liberum (The Freedom of the Seas) (1609), argued for a law of the sea and a principle of free trade o All people have the right to trade o States could not stop other states from using international waters for trade - For the first time the free trade is states as a principle of international law - In the long history of globalization, this was an important establishment – Idea of free trade - However, regardless of Gortius law, Free trade did not happen successfully Privateering and Pirates - Just because it had illegitimate birth, the idea of international trade wasn’t bad - Piracy was often carried out by Privateers - Free agents hired by nations to seize the goods of other nations November 7, 2012 – A Spice Garden in Mauritius European conflicts on land and sea Privateering and Pirates - Pirates used the flag of “skull and bones” to scare other pirates - Privateers were sanctioned by the government English Navigation Act of 1651 - The Dutch did not establish extensive colonial presence in Americas, but profited from shipping goods across the Atlantic to Europe
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