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HISA04 - Week 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
William Nelson

HISA04 – Week 11 – November 20, 2012 iClicker Question 1: Which of these images of a French King is older? A Louis XIV (1638-1715) The Kings of France - How much had changed by the late 18 century? o These pictures are very similar, the kings are in the same pose o Similar background (Coloumn behind them) o Sword o General value of the gowns What made this transformation possible? The Atlantic Revolutions (1766 – 1820s) - Particularly the America (1766), French (1789), Haitian (1790s) and Spanish American (1810s and 1820s) - Challenging and overturning many of the assumptions and foundations of the early modern world Before Nation-States Identification with the Local - Most worldviews did not reach beyond the local Corporate Bodies (Corporations) - For many people, membership in a corporate body like a guild was the foundation of their work life, social life, and identity The Assumption of Inequality - Natural Inequality - Social Inequality The Great Chain of Being - Some are born stronger than others (Phyically) - Some are smarter than others (Physically) Duty versus Freedom Information: Before “News” – Information spread slowly and unreliably - The Atlantic Revolutions began to transform every one of these fundamental features of the early modern world The American Revolution - This is not a through or complete of its vision of recreating the world - Slavery is not fundamentally challenged The French Revolution The French Revolution was the most radical and wide-reaching of the revolutions, directely overturning fundamental features of life in the early modern Europe - The Emergence of the nation-state o Increasing identification with the “Nation” (Hence nationalism) - Abolished most corporate bodies (guilds particularly) - Put into practice new ideas about equality - Undermined Divine Right - Emphasized freedom in relation to duty - An explosion of media (Newspapers, pamphlets, books, cheap illustrations) The Enlightenment: a time of destabilization and the questioning of authority (religious, political, intellectual) - The Enlightenment helped to make the revolutions possible - The Enlightenment: A time of destabilization and the questiong of authority (religious, political, intellectual) - The Enlightenment did not cause the Atlantic Revolutions, but it helped make them possible The Enlightenment th - The movement in 18 century Europe and the Atlantic World characterized by Atlantic world characterized by: o Spread of critical o Emphasis upon the importance of reason and knowledge o Expansion of literacy o Increase of demands for liberty o Decline of religious persecution and the role of religion in grounding all aspects of life The encyclopedia of Diderot and d’Alembert - Goal of comprehensiveness - Reassessment of all foundations and principles - Included the most up to date knowledge - Opposed to intolerance, prejudices, and superstition - Knowledge entailed in the Encyclopedia could help free people from received wisdom tradition - Critical ideas hidden in unexpected entries Long Term Changes - Increased wealth due to international and colonial trade - The wealthier the populations became, the more they demanded from their governments - However, wealth was still not distributed equally or widely; elite merchants and nobles possessed the most - Secularization: The possibility of life without God Desacralization of Rulers: The quasi-divine status of rulers started to be eroded, undermining the idea of their divine right The King of France Becomes a Man - Desacralization – the slow process that separated the king from the sacred. Divine rights of kinds becomes problematic - Despite a general Desacralization, Louis XVI was still supported at the beginning of the Revolution - The new nation took shape as a constitutional monarchy - Various political disagreements between King and revolutionaries occurred - King fled to Varennes in June 1791; captured and returned o People believe that the King could cure their diseases by touching them The Descent through Images - Citizen Louis o The Liberty Cap on the king himself, ambivalence, is the king freeing people, or is it a sign of somebody opposing to the king and forcing on this diminished role - Jolly and Drunk Louis o An ineffectual and unnecessary King - Belittled – No longer even a noblemen riding a horse - “Louis as No more Than a Man” – No crown, clothing or marks of distinction - The criminal (Being Captured) o The king decided he wanted to flee France o Letters indicate so he could raise an army of exile nobles to overturn the Country o As he was very close to the boarder, he was identified and captured to be brought back to Paris - Demonized, Made into a beast o On the Right side = Marie Anntonette, represented as Medusa o On the Left side = King Louis, half man, half goat The King has Left the Building - Killing the King – the apotheosis (climax, fulfillment) of Desacralization in France November 21, 2012 Three Symbols of French Universalism 1. The Meter 2. The Universal Rights of Man 3. Napoleon iClicker Question 1: What was the base measurement for the meter? 1/10 000 000 of the distance between North Pole and the equator, running through Paris The Meter: The First Model of Universalism - People wanted to create a universal system of measurement o Towns had different systems of measurement and would often be confusing  Meant to establish some type of order and consistency around the planet The Metric System - A means of measurement that would be the same in all places at all times o Some people were quite interested in this system, however, there wasn’t a large adaption to this yet o Eventually the Metric system had spread The Terror and Regeneration - “In a time of innovation, everything that is not new is pernicious.” o Saint-Just (French revolutionary and a leader of The Terror.) The Context of the Terror - France was at war with most of Europe o People united with each other to go against France - Civil war and rebellion in some regions of France o Led by Nobles, other Monarchists, and fervent Catholics - Difficulties enlisting enough soldiers - Extreme economic problems o Significant inflation o Prices were soaring o Tax revenue was very low (Many refused to pay taxes) o Foreign trade had dramatically fallen - Fighting was even out at sea (French & British Navy with trade) Robespierre “The Incorruptible” – Leader of The Terror - Figure who always presented his actions in the best interest of revolution but some of his actions were against fundamental principles of revolution o Bipass systems of law (Extra killings not needed) The Terror - After successfully stabilizing the Revolution, The Terror was incre
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